socio-economic characteristics of domestic tourists in ghana

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SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC
TOURISTS IN GHANA
BY
JOSHUA SEBU
INTRO
• Ghana is blessed with several tourist sites
• These include national parks, waterfalls, caves,
hills, castles, botanical gardens, etc.
• Most of these sites are natural
• These natural tourist sites are still in their raw
state yet to be developed to enhance its value
as a tourist site.
INTRO
• Tourism contributes to the development of an
economy through the provision
foreign exchange
Employment
Income
Development of tourism communities and facilities,
etc.
In 2005, US$836.09 thousand dollars was received as
foreign exchange increasing to US$1,875.0 million
dollars in 2010. (Ohene-Ayeh, 2012) (Director of
corporate affairs, GTA).
INTRO
• The fact remains that international tourist
arrivals to tourist sites in Ghana far surpasses
that of domestic tourists.
• According to GSS (2008), over 97% of
Ghanaians hardly visit tourist sites.
• This rather reduces benefits that could be
obtained from their visits.
INTRO
• According to Akyea (2009) among the excuses
given by Ghanaians for not visiting tourist
sites included
Lack of funds
No time to travel
• Among these excuses my students also added that
There are no organisation of such tours
Gate fees are expensive, among others
INTRO
• Fact sheet from GTA indicate rising trend in
domestic tourism
• By the end of 2010, total arrivals to tourist
sites by Ghanaians was 659,325 with an
accompanying
total
revenue
of
GH¢1,407,444.99.
• According to Ohene-Ayeh (2012) this was a
greater improvement in domestic tourism
over the past five years.
Objective
• The study therefore seeks to explore the
socio-demographic characteristics of domestic
tourists in Ghana.
• Specifically the study will answers questions
like
Where domestic tourists are going?
Where they are coming from?
What was the main purpose of their visit?
Methodology
• The study uses data from the last round of the
GLSS (GLSS 5) collected in 2005.
• The sample includes only domestic tourist site
visitors totaling 328 individuals out of 37,128.
• The results are weighted to take care of the
disproportionate sampling.
• Exploring the data through descriptive analysis
to answer the above questions
Results
• Same day visitors were 214, overnight visitors
were 127, whiles 13 were overlapping
• 57.3% males, 42.7% females
• Mean age was 28 years with a standard deviation
of 14.9
• About 95.46% have had some level of education
• Average real income of visitors was GHȼ639.42
whiles non visitors was GHȼ422.80 showing a
34% difference between the two.
• A T-test showed a significant difference (p=0.000)
Same day
Same day
Overnight
Overnight
Freq
Weighted percent
Freq
Weighted percent
19
7.75
20
16.55
Marriage ceremony
5
2.81
2
1.45
Birthday parties
3
1.72
3
3.00
Open days
-
-
1
0.39
Business/Professional
17
8.06
8
5.75
Holidays/Vacation/Leisur
e
Visiting family/Friends
52
25.46
12
7.19
39
16.76
53
42.29
Convention/Conference/
workshop
Religious/Pilgrimage
2
1.12
11
10.47
10
3.60
1
0.86
Government affair
2
1.08
-
-
Studies
3
1.38
4
3.55
Teaching
-
-
1
0.97
Health
1
0.30
-
-
Sports/Recreation
13
8.43
2
2.05
Other
6
3.14
2
0.95
Missing System
42
18.39
7
4.51
Total
214
100.0
127
100.0
Funeral
Frequency
Weighted percent
cape coast castle
22
9.4
elmina castle
10
4.5
kumasi zoo
32
15.4
accra zoo
16
8.7
shai hills reource reserve
3
1.6
aburi botanical gardens
9
4.2
kakum national park
33
13.8
mole national park
6
2.0
ankasa wildlife resource reserve
1
0.4
kwame nkrumah mausoleum
2
1.4
akosombo dam
1
0.5
digyae national park
1
0.3
wui water falls
7
2.7
boti water falls
18
9.6
47
1
0.3
amedzofe
2
0.8
boabeng-fiema monkey sanctuary
2
0.9
tongo hills
1
0.5
paga crocodile pond
1
0.2
bobiri forest and butterfly
sanctuary,nobewam
kintampo waterfalls
1
0.6
4
1.6
lake bosomtwe
15
7.4
other (specify)
26
13.0
Total
214
100
Same day tourist site visited
Frequency
Weighted percent
cape coast castle
15
10.8
elmina castle
11
8.8
kumasi zoo
19
12.9
accra zoo
12
8.7
aumatsa resource reserve
1
1.0
aburi botanical gardens
3
1.9
kakum national park
15
14.6
mole national park
1
1.0
kwame nkrumah mausoleum
5
4.2
manhyia palace,kumasi
1
0.9
kalakpa resource reserve
1
0.7
kogyae strict nature reserve
1
0.5
wui water falls
2
0.6
boti water falls
6
5.6
amedzofe
5
3.2
paga crocodile pond
2
1.2
kintampo waterfalls
2
2.3
lake bosomtwe
6
5.0
other (specify)
19
16.2
Total
127
100.0
Over night tourist site visited
Same day
Cape Coast
Western
20.0
Central
15.3
Elmina
castle
Kumasi
zoo
Accra zoo
G. Accra
15.3
20.2
13.5
11.9
19.5
71.6
17.1
46.6
23.6
23.5
72.5
29.8
29.9
14.6
14.2
10.8
22.2
19.9
1.9
29.9
24.7
7.7
46.8
U. West
1.0
Total
100.0
100.0
4.7
0.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
13.0
2.0
0.7
100.0
14.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.4
21.2
10.6
3.6
68.2
62.4
100.0
100.0
45.5
Tongo hills
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
68.0
7.4
32.1
100.0
32.0
100.0
92.6
8.8
4.5
20.1
100.0
100.0
37.6
54.5
Boabengfiema
monkey
Total
U. East
38.3
Digyae
park
Wui water
falls
Paga
crocodile
Bobiri
forest
Kintampo
waterfalls
Lake
bosomtwe
Other
Northern
100.0
Kwame
Nkrumah
m
Akosombo
dam
Boti water
falls
Amedzofe
B. Ahafo
5.5
3.6
6.1
Ashanti
31.4
Shai hills
Aburi
gardens
Kakum
park
mole
national
park
Ankasa
wildlife
Eastern
11.5
35.1
8.1
Volta
30.3
100.0
2.9
1.1
100.0
overnight
Cape
Coast cast
Elmina
castle
Kumasi
zoo
Accra zoo
Aumatsa
reserve
Aburi
gardens
kakum
national
park
mole park
kwame
nkrumah
Western
41.0
34.7
16.9
Volta
Eastern
Ashanti
B. Ahafo
22.0
22.0
14.9
6.9
26.3
29.1
21.8
21.2
22.4
8.4
Northern
U. East
U. West
38.3
6.7
2.8
12.1
41.8
100.0
35.0
2.3
100.0
6.9
3.6
100.0
100.0
61.7
100.0
81.4
5.4
6.5
100.0
100.0
59.7
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
17.6
22.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
71.3
34.2
28.7
65.8
15.7
Paga
pond
Kintampo
waterfalls
Lake
bosomtwe
Other
(specify)
Total
G. Accra
7.6
Manhyia
palace
Kalakpa
reserve
Kogyae
nature
reserve
Wli water
falls
Boti water
falls
Amedzofe
Central
100.0
100.0
84.3
22.9
100.0
100.0
77.1
42.1
57.9
100.0
54.9
45.1
100.0
16.2
12.3
5.4
3.7
10.1
13.0
11.7
4.9
14.3
49.7
4.7
4.0
2.3
1.7
100.0
29.4
9.5
3.4
2.6
1.2
100.0
Packaged trip
Same day
Same day
Overnight
Overnight
Frequency
Frequency
20
Weighted
percent
15.0
packaged tour
57
Weighted
percent
27.9
self arranged
109
51.0
97
76.6
other
7
3.3
3
3.9
Total
173
82.1
120
95.5
Missing System
41
17.9
7
4.5
Total
214
100.0
127
100.0
Sponsored trip
Same day
Same day
Overnight
overnight
Frequency
Weighted Percent
Frequency
Weighted percent
self-sponsorship
105
48.9
80
63.9
household member
49
24.6
27
20.4
private organisation
7
2.8
2
2.2
government
international
organisation
other
5
2.0
6
4.6
1
0.6
1
2.1
6
6
3.3
4
2.4
Total
173
82.1
120
95.5
Missing System
41
17.9
7
4.5
Total
214
100.0
127
100.0
Accommodation stayed in by overnight
visitors
Frequency
Percent
Weighted percent
Hotel (other lodging
services)
Guest house
9
7.1
7.3
3
2.4
2.0
Health establishments
3
2.4
3.2
Educational institutions
10
7.9
8.3
Holiday resorts
1
0.8
0.4
Tourist camp sites
1
0.8
0.7
Friends'/relative's
residence
Private home
70
55.1
57.0
13
10.2
8.8
Other (specify)
3
2.4
1.8
Total
113
89.0
89.5
Missing System
14
11.0
10.5
Total
127
100.0
100
Conclusion
• Income of domestic sites visitors are greater than
non-visitors
• Visits to these tourist sites were a secondary
matter and not the main motive for travelling to
areas endowed with these tourist sites.
• Places mostly visited included Kakum National
park, Kumasi zoo and cape coast castle.
• Majority of domestic visitors were from the
Ashanti region.
• Visits were mostly self-arranged and also self
sponsored.
Recommendations
• Income levels of individuals when increased
might encourage domestic tourism.
• GTA and other tourism agents should develop
these tourist sites especially the least visited to
encourage increased domestic visits.
• Intensified education and marketing should be
carried out to encourage those who visit areas
with tourist sites to visit these sites.
Future research on regional disparities could be done
to find out the factors influencing more visits by some
regions than others.
THANK YOU
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