State of Literacy among Adolescents and Youth Population

Census of India 2011
State of Literacy Among
Adolescents and Youth Population
Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi
17-07-2014
Introduction
• The rising and young generation, mainly comprising of
adolescents and youth, occupies a special place in the social
environment.
• Population in the age group 10-19 & 15-24 years are treated as
Adolescents & Youth respectively & constitute about 30% of the
total population in India
• Knowledge and well-being of this important section play major
role in deciding the nation’s future.
Definition
• Literates are defined as persons of 7 years and above who can
both read and write with understanding in any language
• Not necessary to have any formal education to be literate
• Also not necessary to pass any minimum educational standard
• Blind people who can read in Braille are treated as literate
•
Literacy rates for adolescent and youth population are the
percentage of literates to total population in the age group 10-19
and 15-24 respectively.
Data Highlights, India, 2001-2011
Adolescents (10-19 Years)
Census Year
Population
(in million)
Literates
(in million)
Literacy Rate
( %)
2001
225.1
181.5
80.6
2011
253.2
228.0
90.0
28.1 (12.5%)
46.5 (25.7%)
9.4
Change
Youth (15-24 Years)
Census Year
Population
(in million)
Literates
(in million)
Literacy Rate
( %)
2001
190.0
145.2
76.4
2011
232.0
199.8
86.1
42.0 (22.1%)
54.6 (37.6%)
9.7
Change
In 2011, every 10th adolescent and 7th youth in India are illiterates as
against every 5th adolescent and 9th youth in the world.
Literacy Rates in EAG & Non-EAG States/UTs
Literacy Rate among Adolescents (10-19 Years)
Census Year
EAG States
Non-EAG
States/UTs
2001
74%
87%
2011
87%
93%
Decadal Change
13%
6%
Literacy Rate among Youth (15-24 Years)
Census Year
EAG States
Non-EAG
States/UTs
2001
68%
82%
2011
81%
91%
Decadal Change
13%
9%
•EAG States are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh & Odisha.
•Higher literacy in Non-EAG States/UTs in both the categories and in both 2001 & 2011
•EAG States have recorded higher decadal increase among both adolescents & youth
Rural
+
Urban
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Youth
Adolescents
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Adolescents(10-19 years age group)
100.0
85.5
90.0
76.2
80.0
66.5
70.0
60.0
50.0
61.3
53.4
40.6
40.0
30.0
44.2
91.7
90.0
88.2
67.4
57.6
73.5
80.0
62.1
50.9
50.0
38.0
36.0
40.0
26.4
90.0
86.1
84.2
90.0
60.0
66.3
61.9
53.8
48.2
81.8
76.4
67.7
49.3
40.3
33.3
30.0
20.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
100.0
70.0
75.1
56.0
50.3
80.6
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Youth (15-24 years age group)
27.0
23.3
22.3
18.6
10.4
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
Gender Gap
Persons
Males
3.5
10.0
0.0
2011
Females
20.9
30.0
1961
28.8
26.0
1971
1981
Gender Gap
Persons
24.2
16.5
1991
2001
Males
8.2
2011
Females
Gender gap for adolescents has reduced at greater pace than that of youth
With more scope for improvement, female literacy for both groups went up sharply than that of males during 1981-2011
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011 and publications from earlier censuses.
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Adolescents
Youth
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Adolescents(10-19 years age group)
100.0
91.1
88.9
83.5
80.0
72.3
70.0
61.5
55.7
60.0
49.1
47.5
50.0
61.6
86.5
77.3
70.3
80.0
28.7
26.3
1961
1971
26.2
22.8
4.6
13.2
10.0
0.0
Gender Gap
1981
Persons
1991
Males
2001
2011
Females
54.7
60.6
45.6
43.7
40.2
39.9
30.5
28.6
30.0
18.8
71.5
60.0
55.5
40.0
20.0
10.0
68.6
50.0
29.4
30.0
88.8
83.7
78.0
81.5
60.0
49.5
35.3
33.9
90.0
70.0
43.3
40.0
0.0
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Youth (15-24 years age group)
100.0
90.0
20.0
Rural
24.4
13.9
31.1
29.5
1971
1981
28.7
20.9
10.8
1991
2001
2011
29.8
1961
Gender Gap
Persons
Males
Female literacy was substantially lower than males in 1961 & moved sharply after 1981
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011 and publications from earlier censuses.
Females
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Adolescents
Youth
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Youth (15-24 years age group)
Literacy Rate by Sex, India, 1961-2011
Adolescents(10-19 years age group)
100.0
87.1
90.0
80.0
70.0
81.7
77.9
76.4
77.5
83.7
90.6
89.2
93.3
92.8
92.2
87.5
80.0
69.7
60.0
50.0
82.2
70.4
72.2
100.0
90.0
76.3
70.0
65.0
60.0
60.1
50.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
20.0
20.0
17.8
0.0
1961
10.0
11.3
10.0
7.1
3.1
1.1
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
Gender Gap
Persons
Males
Females
82.0
80.0
40.0
10.0
Urban
51.4
24.9
0.0
1961
74.0
64.4
82.5
75.8
85.6
80.2
90.2
87.4
84.2
68.1
74.0
6.0
17.6
14.4
11.6
1971
1981
1991
Gender Gap
92.6
91.4
90.0
Persons
Female literacy in urban remarkably better than that of rural area
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011 and publications from earlier censuses.
Males
2001
2.6
2011
Females
Comparative Gender Gap in Literacy Rate by Residence
Adolescents
Youth
Gender Gap in Literacy Among Adolescents
India, 1961-2011
Gender Gap in Literacy Among Youth
India, 1961-2011
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
35.0
28.7
26.3
30.0
26.2
27.0
17.8
15.0
25.0
22.8
23.3
22.3
10.0
10.0
7.1
5.0
13.2
10.4
3.1
0.0
1961
1971
Total
•
•
1981
Rural
1991
2001
Urban
31.1
28.8
24.9
20.0
18.6
11.3
30.0
29.8
29.5
26.0
28.7
14.4
15.0
11.6
10.0
4.6
3.5
1.1
2011
20.9
24.2
17.6
16.5
6.0
5.0
10.8
8.2
2.6
0.0
1961
1971
1981
Total
Rural
The decline is sharper in case of Rural areas, particularly during 1991-2011
Rural-Urban differential in gender gap is less in case of Adolescents
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011 and publications from earlier censuses.
1991
2001
Urban
2011
Gender Gap in Literacy Rate, 2011 (States and UTs)
Adolescent
Youth
Meghalaya has negative gender gap both among adolescents and youth. Daman & Diu has also negative gender gap among adolescents only.
Higher gender gap among youth may be due to female drop out or/and early marriage etc.
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011
Rural
+
Urban
Comparative Literacy Rate, India, 1961-2011
Literacy Rate among
Adolescents, Youth and Population 7+
India, 1961-2011
40.6
30.0
48.2
51.6
43.1
36.0
37.3
30.7
6.0
11.4
9.4
9.7
10.0
8.0
64.8
53.8
50.3
50.0
40.0
61.9
56.0
60.0
Pop 7+
12.0
8.2
73.0
14.0
8.1
8.5
67.4
70.0
76.4
Youth
5.7
5.6
5.8
80.0
86.1
16.0
12.2
80.6
Adolescents
6.6
90.0
90.0
9.7
100.0
13.2
14.5
13.2
Improvement in Literacy Rate among
Adolescents, Youth and Population 7+
India, 1961-2011
4.0
2.0
0.0
1961-71 1971-81 1981-91 1991-01 2001-11
20.0
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Adolescents
Youth
• The decade 1991-2001 witnessed maximum improvement in literacy for all three categories
• The pace of improvement during the decade 2001-11 has declined for all three categories
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011 and publications from earlier censuses.
Pop 7+
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Adolescents)
Literacy
Rate
2011
States/Uts with higher literacy in 2001 have recorded lower decadal changes and vice –versa
Gujarat, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh have the combination of high literacy (90%+) & higher decadal increase (7.6% +)
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Youth)
Literacy
Rate
2011
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Literacy Rate by Social Groups : 2001-11
83.3
86.1
75.0
2001
59.2
2011
60
80
68.5
2001
76.4
83.6
Literacy rate by social groups (Youth)
India, 2001-11
100
67.1
80
88.8
76.2
90.0
100
80.6
Literacy rate by social groups (Adolescents)
India, 2001-11
2011
60
Improvement
Improvement
0
14.8
20
15.8
40
9.7
12.6
9.4
20
16.5
40
0
Overall
SC
ST
Overall
SC
ST
•Literacy Rates for SCs in both categories (adolescent & youth) are lower than overall but higher than that of STs
•Having more scope, STs have recorded higher decadal improvement in both the categories
Source: Table C8, Census 2001 and Table C-13A, Census 2011
Scheduled Castes
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Adolescents)
Literacy
Rate
2011
States having higher literacy in 2001 have recorded lower decadal changes
Mizoram has recorded marginal negative decadal growth in literacy (96.4% in 2001 to 95.6% in 2011)
Source: Table C8SC, Census 2001 and Table C-13A SC, Census 2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Scheduled Castes
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Youth)
Literacy
Rate
2011
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha & West Bengal have recorded higher literacy rate (85-95%) in 2011
and also higher decadal changes (15-20%).
Source: Table C8SC, Census 2001 and Table C-13A SC, Census 2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Scheduled Tribes
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Adolescents)
Literacy
Rate
2011
Tamil Nadu recorded higher literacy and also higher decadal growth in literacy
Source: Table C8ST, Census 2001 and Table C-13A ST, Census 2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Scheduled Tribes
Literacy-2011 and Decadal Change 2001-11 (Youth)
Literacy
Rate
2011
Decadal
Change
2001-11
Like SC adolescents, Mizoram is the only state which has recorded marginal negative decadal change in
literacy
Source: Table C8ST, Census 2001 and Table C-13A ST, Census 2011
Thank You
Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
2-A, Man Singh Road, New Delhi – 110011
Website: www.censusindia.gov.in
E-mail: [email protected]
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