participation among Youth and Adolescents

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Work participation among
youth and adolescents
( NSS lens)
Smt. Jeyalakshmi sekhar
17 July 2014
Economic activity
• Any activity resulting in production of goods and
services that add value to national product is
considered an economic activity
• Production of all goods and services for market for pay
or profit including those of Government services,
production of primary commodities for own
consumption and own account production of fixed
assets are taken as Economic activities in NSS EU
(employment unemployment) surveys.
• Processing of primary products for own consumption
was not considered as economic activity in NSS surveys
Activity status
• Three broad activity statuses
 working (engaged in economic activity)
 Not engaged in economic activity (work) but seeking
work or available for work
 Not engaged in any economic activity and also not
available for work
•
•
First two together define labour force while the
last category is considered not in labour force.
First category is employed and second is
unemployed.
Decision on activity status
• During reference period if more than one activity is obtained for a
person, the decided category is based on the major time criterion (In
usual status approach) or priority criterion (current status approach)
• Usual activity status is the status during the 365 days preceding the date
of the survey; determined on the basis of usual principal activity status
(ps) and usual subsidiary activity status (ss) taken together. If the person
does some economic activity for 30 days or more during last 365 days,
he is considered a worker according to usual status approach
• Current status is current weekly and current daily status
• Worked for at least 1 hour on any day during the 7 days preceding the
survey
• Worked for at least 1 hour during the day for current daily status
workers
• Persons engaged in any economic activity or who despite
their attachment to the economic activity , abstained
themselves from work for reason of illness, injury or other
physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious
functions or other contingencies necessitating temporary
absence from work, constituted workers
• Unpaid household members who assisted in the operation
of an economic activity in household farm or nonfarm
activities were also considered as workers
• Workers were further categorised as self employed Codes
11,12,21), regular wage/ salaried employee(code 31) and
casual labour(41). These are the codes applicable for usual
status approach.
Categories of self employed persons
• Own account workers (ran their enterprises
without hiring any labour by and large)
• Employers with hired labour
• Helpers in household enterprises who did not
receive any regular salary or wages
Classification followed
• To record industry of work, 5 digit classification of
National Industrial Classification 2008 was used.
• To record type of occupation, 3 digit classification
of National Classification of occupations 2004
was used.
• To identify certain category of workers under
Division 97 of NIC (Activities of households as
employers of domestic personnel), additional
codes were used such as housemaid/ servant
(97001), cook (97002) etc
Key Indicators
• Labour force participation rate(LFPR) = [ ( no of
employed+ no of unemployed ) / total
population] * 1000
• Worker population ratio (WPR) =no of employed
persons/ total population
• Proportion of unemployed (PU) = ( no of
unemployed persons/ total population ) * 1000
• Unemployment rate (UR) =[ no of unemployed
persons/ (no of employed + unemployed
persons) ] *1000
WPR (ps+ss) – male, female
• We will understand the trend of WPR according to
usual status(ps+ss) .
• Data are based on the 68 th round of NSS EUS the
reference period being july 2011-june2012.
• WPR for persons = 386 per 1000
• WPR for female
= 219
• WPR for male
= 544
• Only 22% of women are workers while 54% of men
are workers . Gender differentials in WPR are highly
pronounced, considering that almost equal no of men
and women constitute the population.
WPR(ps+ss) for rural,urban
Category of person
WPR in usual status
(ps+ss)
WPR in usual status (ps+ss)
Rural
urban
Male
543
546
Female
248
147
person
399
355
•Figures reveal that rural urban differentials are highly
pronounced in Female WPR
•25% of women work in rural areas whereas 15% of women
only work in urban areas
•The explanation could be that women’s work at home
(home based workers) is not fully accounted for. The
respondent may not reveal the information unless deeply
probed
WPR(ps+ss) trend over the years
61 (2004-05)
66 (2009-10)
68 (2011-12)
MALE
546
547
543
FEMALE
327
261
248
PERSON
439
408
399
Male
549
543
546
Female
166
138
147
Person
365
350
355
Male
547
546
544
Female
287
228
219
person
420
392
386
RURAL
Urban
Rural+urban
There is a declining trend in Female WPR over the years while the
male WPR remains almost at the same level
RURAL
male
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
female
546
327
547
261
543
248
600
500
400
male
300
female
200
100
0
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
URBAN
male
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
female
549
166
543
138
546
147
600
500
400
male
300
female
200
100
0
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
Trend in Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
Rural
10-14 years
15-19 years
male
female
male
female
1999-2000
91
96
503
304
2004-2005
68
74
497
2009-2010
44
35
2011-2012
26
28
20-24 years
male
All (0+)
female
male
female
844
409
531
299
319
849
410
546
327
358
186
768
295
547
261
303
156
742
278
543
248
WPR (ps+ss) for the adolescent and youth groups are showing a
declining trend in rural areas for both male and female
RURAL MALE
1999-2000
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
10-14 yrs 15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs
91
503
844
68
497
849
44
358
768
26
303
742
1600
1400
1200
1000
20-24 yrs
800
15-19 yrs
600
10-14 yrs
400
200
0
1999-2000
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
RURAL FEMALE
1999-2000
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
10-14 yrs 15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs
96
304
409
74
319
410
35
186
295
28
156
278
900
800
700
600
500
20-24 yrs
400
15-19 yrs
300
10-14 yrs
200
100
0
1999-2000
2004-05
2009-10
2011-12
Trend in Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
urban
10-14 years
male
female
15-19 years
male
female
20-24 years
male
female
All (0 +)
male
female
1999-2000
49
36
314
105
658
155
518
139
2004-2005
48
33
335
128
684
201
549
166
2009-2010
28
12
231
76
617
160
543
138
2011-2012
33
9
223
78
594
160
546
147
WPR (ps+ss) for the adolescent and youth groups are showing a
declining trend in urban areas also for both male and female. This
may be an indication for the fact that the adolescents and youth are
proceeding for higher studies to increase their qualifications for job
market.
Trend urban male
10-14 yrs
1999-2000
2004-2005
2009-2010
2011-2012
15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs
49
314
658
48
335
684
28
231
617
33
223
594
1200
1000
800
20-24 yrs
600
15-19 yrs
400
10-14 yrs
200
0
1999-2000
2004-2005
2009-2010
2011-2012
Trend Urban Female
1999-2000
2004-2005
2009-2010
2011-2012
10-14yrs 15-19yrs 20-24 yrs
36
105
155
33
128
201
12
76
160
9
78
160
400
350
300
250
20-24 yrs
200
15-19yrs
150
10-14yrs
100
50
0
1999-2000
2004-2005
2009-2010
2011-2012
Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
Rural Male 2011-12 by States/UTs
All India
States/uts
above
national
average for
the age group
10-14 years
15-19 years
20-24 years
All (0+)
male
male
female
male
male
female
303
156
543
248
26
female
28
742
female
278
10-14 years: rural male –
Gujarat(47),Jharkhand(76),Karnataka(35),Maharashtra(36),Punjab(30), UP((42),
WB(33)
15-19 years: rural maleGujarat(353),Jharkhand(384),Karnataka(311),MP(374),Mizoram(434),
Odisha(400),Punjab(303),Tnadu(283)
UP(381),WB(360),Andaman(358),Lakshadweep(318)
20-24 years:rural maleChattisgarh(855),Gujarat(887),Karna(767)MP(807),Mizoram(817),odisha(836),
Punjab(757), Rajasthan(751),
Sikkim(875),UP(800),WB(806),Chandigarh(850),Daman&Diu(946)
Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
Rural Female2011-12 by States/UTs
All India
States/uts
above
national
average
10-14 years
15-19 years
20-24 years
All (0+)
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
female
26
28
303
156
278
543
248
742
10-14 years: rural Female
Andhra (67) Gujarat(38),Jharkhand(57), nagaland(36),
Odisha(29),Rajasthan(44), UP(40), WB(40)
15-19 years: rural Female
Andhra(251),chattisgarh(283), Goa(166), Gujarat(312),
J&k(164),Mizoram(259), Odisha(238),Rajas(263),Tnadu(186),
uttarakhand(169), WB(158)
20-24 years:rural Female
Andhra(463), Arunachal(412),Chattisgarh(510),Delhi(468),
Goa(520),Guj(363),HP(557),J&K(379),Karna(299),MP(339),maha(405),
manipur(379),Meghalaya(458),Mizoram(657), Nagaland(346)
,Odisha(320),Punjab(281), Rajas(454), Sikkim(596), Tnadu(386),
Uttarakhand(351), Andaman(368)
Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
urban male 2011-12 by States/UTs
10-14 years
male
All India
States/uts
above
national
average
33
female
9
15-19 years
male
223
female
78
20-24 years
male
594
female
160
All (0+)
male
female
546
147
10-14 years: urban male –
Odisha(55), UP(60), WB(199)
15-19 years: urban maleChattisgarh(248),Gujarat(302),HP(279),
Odisha(278),Punjab(268),Rajasthan(234),UP(337),WB(332),Dadra nagar
haveli(253)
20-24 years:urban maleGuj(747),HP(688),Kerala(627),Punjab(646), Rajas(603),
Sikkim(839),Tnadu(608),Uttarakhand(640),UP(627),WB(642),Andaman(804),Dad
ra(650),Daman&diu(984)
Age specific WPR (ps+ss)
urban Female2011-12 by States/UTs
10-14 years
All India
States/uts
above
national
average
15-19 years
male
female
male
female
33
9
223
78
20-24 years
male
594
All (0+)
female
male
female
160
546
147
10-14 years: urban Female
Chattisgarh(12), Gujarat(17),Jharkhand(25), Odisha (24),
Punjab(15),Rajasthan(10),Sikkim(51) ,UP(24), WB(27),Chandigarh(12)
15-19 years: urban Female
Gujarat(102),Maharashtra(83),Meghalaya(80) ,Mizoram(88),
Rajasthan(112),UP(120), WB(108)
20-24 years:urban Female
Chattisgarh(289),Delhi(181), Goa(289),J&K(174),Karna(172),Maha(182),
Manipur(189),Mizoram(261),Odisha(201), Sikkim(196), Tnadu(242),
Andaman(328),Daman&diu(249),Puducherry(193)
WPR usual status (ps+ss) for adolescents (10-19) and
Youth(15-24) All India- data and calculations
10-14 years 15-19 years
20-24 years
10-19years
15-24 years
Rural male
Estimated
Population(00) (NSS)
WPR(ps+ss)
494883
425798
319784
920681
745582
26
303
742
154
491
419495
357298
319626
776793
676924
28
156
278
87
214
173618
169453
159656
343071
329109
33
223
594
127
403
142425
137274
149466
279699
286740
Rural female
Estimated
Population(00) (NSS)
WPR(ps+ss)
Urban male
Estimated
Population(00) (NSS)
WPR(ps+ss)
Urban female
Estimated
Population(00) (NSS)
WPR(ps+ss)
9
78
160
43
121
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS
• Only 22% of women are workers while 54% of men
are workers . Gender differentials in WPR are highly
pronounced, considering that almost equal no of men
and women constitute the population.
• Figures reveal that rural urban differentials are highly
pronounced in Female WPR
• 25% of women work in rural areas whereas only 15%
of women work in urban areas
• The explanation could be that women’s work at home
(home based work) is not fully accounted for. The
respondent may not reveal the information unless
deeply probed
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (2)
• There is a declining trend in Female WPR over
the years while the male WPR remains almost
at the same level
• WPR (ps+ss) for the adolescent and youth groups
are showing a declining trend in both rural and
urban areas for both male and female. This may
be an indication of the fact that the adolescents
and youth are proceeding for higher studies to
increase their qualifications for job market.
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (3)
• For rural males age group 10-14 years, the WPR
is highest in Jharkhand(76) and lowest in all UTs
and HP(0).
• For rural males age group 15-19 years, the WPR
is highest in Mizoram(434) and lowest in
Chandigarh(0), Daman and Diu(0), Delhi stands
at 8.
• For rural males age group 20-24 years, the WPR
is highest in Daman and Diu(946) followed by
Gujarat(887) and lowest in Manipur(409)
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (4)
• For rural Females age group 10-14 years, the
WPR is highest in Andhra Pradesh(67) and
lowest in all UTs, Delhi, Goa, Haryana,
Kerala,Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura(0)
• For rural Females age group 15-19 years, the
WPR is highest in Gujarat(312) and lowest in
Delhi, Daman and Diu and lakshadweep(0).
• For rural Females age group 20-24 years, the
WPR is highest in Mizoram(657) and lowest in
Bihar(36)
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (5)
• For urban males age group 10-14 years, the WPR
is highest in West Bengal(199) and lowest in all
UTs and Arunachal Pradesh,Goa, HP, Manipur,
Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim(0)
• For urban males age group 15-19 years, the WPR
is highest in UP(337) and lowest in Arunachal
Pradesh(6).
• For urban males age group 20-24 years, the WPR
is highest in Daman and Diu(984) and lowest in
Nagaland(138)
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (6)
• For urban Females age group 10-14 years, the WPR is
highest in Sikkim(51) and lowest in Assam, Delhi,
Goa,Haryana,HP,Karnataka,Kerala,Maharashtra,Megh
alaya,Mizoram,Nagaland,Tripura,Uttarakhand,Andam
an and Nicobar,Dadra And Nagar Haveli,
Lakshadweep and Puducherry(0)
• For Urban Females age group 15-19 years, the WPR is
highest in UP(120) and lowest in Goa(0) followed by
Bihar(1).
• For urban Females age group 20-24 years, the WPR is
highest in Andaman and nicobar(328) and lowest in
Assam(45).
Conclusions based on WPR(PS+SS) usual status
(atleast worked for 30 days in a year)-NSS (7)
2011-12
Rural male
Adolescents(10
-19)
154
Youth(15-24)
491
Urban male Rural
female
127
87
403
214
Urban
female
43
121
It can be concluded that the work participation rate of youth is
roughly 3 times more than that of adolescents irrespective of
rural or urban and male or female.
For both adolescents and youth, Female participation rates are
roughly 50% of male rates in rural areas while it is roughly
1/3rd of male rates in urban areas.
Thank you
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