Attacks on Computer Systems

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Attacks on Computer Systems
Hans Hedbom
Attacks
“Non-Technical” attacks
Example
Social engineering
Phishing
Cause
Low user awareness or missing policies/routines
Technical attacks
Example
See following slides
Cause
2
Transitive trust
Bugs and configuration errors in apps and OS
Vulnerabilities in protocols and Network Infrastructure
Threats to confidentiality
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
NETWORK ATTACKS
SYN-Attacks
The attacker sends a large amount of SYN-packets to the server
fills-up the SYN-buffer
server is unable to accept more connections
Denial of Service
Client
SYN
Server
SYN,ACK
ACK
TCP event diagram
5
Timeout ~4 min.
IP Fragmentation Attack
Intentional fragmentation of IP-packets may confuse routers, firewalls
and servers
IP-packet
Data
Header
Fragment 1
Header
Offset 0
Fragment 2
Data
H
Data
Offset 20 Offset 16
Original
Fragmented
IP-packet
Data
Header
6
Overlap!
Assembled
Sniffer Attacks
Eavesdropping on a network segment.
Telnet (password in the clear)
Telnet
Client
Telnet
Server
IP Network
Telnet
Attacker
7
Passwords over the Net
Telnet
FTP
Rlogin
Rexec
POP
SNMP
NFS
SMB
HTTP
8
IP-Spoofing
Counterfeiting of IP-sender-addresses when using UDP and TCP
NFS-request
NFS
Client
NFS-response
SYN-attack
Attacker
9
NFS
Server
IP Network
Session Hijacking
Attacker hijacks a session between a client and a server
it could for example be an administrator using telnet for remote login
Telnet traffic
Telnet
client
IP Network
SYN-attack
IP-Spoofing
Attacker
10
Telnet
server
DNS Cache Poisoning
DNS = Domain Name Service
is primarily used to translate names into IP-addresses
e.g. ”www.sunet.se” to ”192.36.125.18”
data injection into the DNS server
cross checking an address might help
11
OS (SOFTWARE) ATTACKS
Race Condition Attacks
Explores software that performs operations in an improper
sequence. e.g. psrace (Solaris 2.x).
Application
/usr/bin/ps
Create file
Store data
Set SUID
Use data
Remove file
13
/tmp/sh
Create link
/tmp/ps_data
Buffer overflows
Buffer overflow accounts for 50 % of the security
bugs
(Viega and McGraw)
Data is stored in allocated memory called buffer. If
too much data need to be stored the additional
bytes have to go somewhere.
 The buffer overflows and data are written past
the bounds.
WEB ATTACKS
Browser Vulnerabillities
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
Window of Exposure
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
Phishing
Phishing
(only works with predictable or time invariant values)
Trick the user to access a forged web page.
SSL/TLS
1. Username
2. Ask for login credentials
3. Give login credentials
4.Ok alt Deny (error code)
Forged Web Page
Phishing
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
Phishing
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
Pharming
5.Chalange
6. Responce
1.Username
4.Chalange
7 .Responce
9.Ok alt Deny
2.Username
3.Chalange
8.Responce
9.Ok alt Deny
XSS
What is SQL Injection?
$name = $HTTP_POST_VARS["name"];
$passwd =
$HTTP_POST_VARS[“passwd"];
$query = “select name from
users where name = ‘”.$name.”’
and passwd = ‘”.$passwd.”’” ;
$result = mysql_query($query);
What is SQL Injection?
BOT-NETS
Bot-nets
A bot-net is a large collection of compromised computers
under the control of a command and control server.
A bot-net consists of bots (the malicious program), drones
(the hijacked computers) and (one or more) C&C server.
A bot is usually a combination of a worm and a backdoor.
IRC and HTTP are the primary communication protocols
in today's bot-nets.
Bots are usually self spreding and modular.
26
Uses of bot-nets
Bot-nets could be used for the following:
Click Fraud
Making drones click on specific advertisements on the web.
DDoS
For financial gain or blackmail.
Keyloging
For financial gain and identity theft.
Warez
Collecting, spreading and storing
Spam
For financial gain.
And of course as a private communication network.
27
Detecting and preventing bot-nets
Detection is all about finding the C&C server.
Look for suspicious traffic patterns in firewall logs and other logs.
Take note of servers whit a high number of incoming connections.
Monitor the suspicious C&C and inform the owner and the authorities when
you are sure that it is a bot-net controller.
Prevention
All the usual rules apply: patch and protect. Do egress filtering in firewalls as
well as ingress. This will stop infections from spreading and could block
outgoing traffic from drones within the intranet.
Problems
Some bot-nets are encrypted.
Tracking the C&C to the real bot-net owner can be hard.
28
Bot activity
Table from: Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report Trends for 2009
Volume XV, Published April 2010
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