# Lecture Slides

```Effect of Support Distribution

Many real data sets have skewed support
distribution
Support
distribution of
a retail data set
Effect of Support Distribution

How to set the appropriate minsup threshold?
– If minsup is set too high, we could miss itemsets
involving interesting rare items (e.g., expensive
products)
– If minsup is set too low, it is computationally
expensive and the number of itemsets is very large

Using a single minimum support threshold may
not be effective
Multiple Minimum Support

How to apply multiple minimum supports?
– MS(i): minimum support for item i
– e.g.: MS(Milk)=5%,
MS(Coke) = 3%,
MS(Broccoli)=0.1%, MS(Salmon)=0.5%
– MS({Milk, Broccoli}) = min (MS(Milk), MS(Broccoli))
= 0.1%
– Challenge: Support is no longer anti-monotone


Suppose:
Support(Milk, Coke) = 1.5% and
Support(Milk, Coke, Broccoli) = 0.5%
{Milk,Coke} is infrequent but {Milk,Coke,Broccoli} is frequent
Multiple Minimum Support
Item
MS(I)
Sup(I)
A
0.10% 0.25%
B
0.20% 0.26%
C
0.30% 0.29%
D
0.50% 0.05%
E
3%
4.20%
AB
ABC
AC
ABD
ABE
AE
ACD
BC
ACE
BD
BE
BCD
CD
BCE
CE
BDE
DE
CDE
A
B
C
D
E
Multiple Minimum Support
Item
MS(I)
AB
ABC
AC
ABD
ABE
AE
ACD
BC
ACE
BD
BE
BCD
CD
BCE
CE
BDE
DE
CDE
Sup(I)
A
A
B
0.10% 0.25%
0.20% 0.26%
B
C
C
0.30% 0.29%
D
D
0.50% 0.05%
E
E
3%
4.20%
Multiple Minimum Support (Liu 1999)

Order the items according to their minimum
support (in ascending order)
– e.g.:
MS(Milk)=5%,
MS(Coke) = 3%,
MS(Broccoli)=0.1%, MS(Salmon)=0.5%
– Ordering: Broccoli, Salmon, Coke, Milk

Need to modify Apriori such that:
– L1 : set of frequent items
– F1 : set of items whose support is  MS(1)
where MS(1) is mini( MS(i) )
– C2 : candidate itemsets of size 2 is generated from F1
Multiple Minimum Support (Liu 1999)

Modifications to Apriori:
A candidate (k+1)-itemset is generated by merging two
frequent itemsets of size k
 The candidate is pruned if it contains any infrequent subsets
of size k

– Pruning step has to be modified:
Prune only if subset contains the first item
 e.g.: Candidate={Broccoli, Coke, Milk} (ordered according to
minimum support)
 {Broccoli, Coke} and {Broccoli, Milk} are frequent but
{Coke, Milk} is infrequent

– Candidate is not pruned because {Coke,Milk} does not contain
the first item, i.e., Broccoli.
Mining Various Kinds of Association
Rules

Mining multilevel association

Miming multidimensional association

Mining quantitative association

Mining interesting correlation patterns
Mining Multiple-Level Association Rules


Items often form hierarchies
Flexible support settings
– Items at the lower level are expected to have lower support

Exploration of shared multi-level mining (Agrawal &amp;
[email protected]’95, Han &amp; [email protected]’95)
reduced support
uniform support
Level 1
min_sup = 5%
Level 2
min_sup = 5%
Milk
[support = 10%]
2% Milk
[support = 6%]
Skim Milk
[support = 4%]
Level 1
min_sup = 5%
Level 2
min_sup = 3%
Multi-level Association: Redundancy Filtering

Some rules may be redundant due to “ancestor”
relationships between items.

Example
[support = 8%, confidence = 70%]
– 2% milk  wheat bread [support = 2%, confidence = 72%]

We say the first rule is an ancestor of the second rule.

A rule is redundant if its support is close to the “expected”
value, based on the rule’s ancestor.
Mining Multi-Dimensional
Association

Single-dimensional rules:

Multi-dimensional rules:  2 dimensions or predicates
– Inter-dimension assoc. rules (no repeated predicates)
age(X,”19-25”)  occupation(X,“student”)  buys(X, “coke”)
– hybrid-dimension assoc. rules (repeated predicates)

Categorical Attributes: finite number of possible values, no
ordering among values—data cube approach

Quantitative Attributes: numeric, implicit ordering among
Mining Quantitative Associations

Techniques can be categorized by how numerical
attributes, such as age or salary are treated
1. Static discretization based on predefined concept
hierarchies (data cube methods)
2. Dynamic discretization based on data distribution
(quantitative rules, e.g., Agrawal &amp; [email protected])
3. Clustering: Distance-based association (e.g., Yang &amp;
[email protected])
–
one dimensional clustering then association
4. Deviation: (such as Aumann and [email protected])
Sex = female =&gt; Wage: mean=\$7/hr (overall mean = \$9)
Static Discretization of Quantitative
Attributes

Discretized prior to mining using concept hierarchy.

Numeric values are replaced by ranges.

In relational database, finding all frequent k-predicate sets
will require k or k+1 table scans.

Data cube is well suited for mining.

The cells of an n-dimensional
(age)
()
(income)
cuboid correspond to the
predicate sets.

Mining from data cubes
can be much faster.
(age, income)
Quantitative Association Rules


Proposed by Lent, Swami and Widom ICDE’97
Numeric attributes are dynamically discretized
– Such that the confidence or compactness of the rules mined is
maximized



2-D quantitative association rules: Aquan1  Aquan2  Acat
association
rules
to form general
rules using a 2-D grid
Example
age(X,”34-35”)  income(X,”30-50K”)
Mining Other Interesting Patterns

Flexible support constraints (Wang et al. @ VLDB’02)
– Some items (e.g., diamond) may occur rarely but are valuable
– Customized supmin specification and application

Top-K closed frequent patterns (Han, et al. @ ICDM’02)
– Hard to specify supmin, but top-k with lengthmin is more desirable
– Dynamically raise supmin in FP-tree construction and mining, and
select most promising path to mine
Pattern Evaluation

Association rule algorithms tend to produce too
many rules
– many of them are uninteresting or redundant
– Redundant if {A,B,C}  {D} and {A,B}  {D}
have same support &amp; confidence

Interestingness measures can be used to
prune/rank the derived patterns

In the original formulation of association rules,
support &amp; confidence are the only measures used
Application of Interestingness Measure
Interestingness
Measures
Computing Interestingness Measure

Given a rule X  Y, information needed to compute rule
interestingness can be obtained from a contingency table
Contingency table for X  Y
Y
Y
X
f11
f10
f1+
X
f01
f00
fo+
f+1
f+0
|T|
f11: support of X and Y
f10: support of X and Y
f01: support of X and Y
f00: support of X and Y
Used to define various measures

support, confidence, lift, Gini,
J-measure, etc.
Drawback of Confidence
Coffee
Coffee
Tea
15
5
20
Tea
75
5
80
90
10
100
Association Rule: Tea  Coffee
Confidence= P(Coffee|Tea) = 0.75
but P(Coffee) = 0.9
 Although confidence is high, rule is misleading
 P(Coffee|Tea) = 0.9375
Statistical Independence

Population of 1000 students
– 600 students know how to swim (S)
– 700 students know how to bike (B)
– 420 students know how to swim and bike (S,B)
– P(SB) = 420/1000 = 0.42
– P(S)  P(B) = 0.6  0.7 = 0.42
– P(SB) = P(S)  P(B) =&gt; Statistical independence
– P(SB) &gt; P(S)  P(B) =&gt; Positively correlated
– P(SB) &lt; P(S)  P(B) =&gt; Negatively correlated
Statistical-based Measures

Measures that take into account statistical
dependence
P(Y | X )
Lift 
P(Y )
P( X , Y )
Interest 
P( X ) P(Y )
PS  P( X , Y )  P( X ) P(Y )
P( X , Y )  P( X ) P(Y )
  coefficient 
P( X )[1  P( X )]P(Y )[1  P(Y )]
Example: Lift/Interest
Coffee
Coffee
Tea
15
5
20
Tea
75
5
80
90
10
100
Association Rule: Tea  Coffee
Confidence= P(Coffee|Tea) = 0.75
but P(Coffee) = 0.9
 Lift = 0.75/0.9= 0.8333 (&lt; 1, therefore is negatively associated)
Drawback of Lift &amp; Interest
Y
Y
X
10
0
10
X
0
90
90
10
90
100
0.1
Lift 
 10
(0.1)(0.1)
Y
Y
X
90
0
90
X
0
10
10
90
10
100
0.9
Lift 
 1.11
(0.9)(0.9)
Statistical independence:
If P(X,Y)=P(X)P(Y) =&gt; Lift = 1
Interestingness Measure: Correlations (Lift)

– The overall % of students eating cereal is 75% &gt; 66.7%.

play basketball  not eat cereal [20%, 33.3%] is more accurate,
although with lower support and confidence

Measure of dependent/correlated events: lift
P( A B)
lift 
P( A) P( B)
Sum (row)
Cereal
2000
1750
3750
Not cereal
1000
250
1250
Sum(col.)
3000
2000
5000
2000 / 5000
lift ( B, C ) 
 0.89
3000 / 5000 * 3750 / 5000
lift ( B, C ) 
1000 / 5000
 1.33
3000 / 5000 *1250 / 5000
Are lift and 2 Good Measures of
Correlation?

– if 85% of customers buy milk

Support and confidence are not good to represent correlations

So many interestingness measures? (Tan, Kumar, Sritastava @KDD’02)
lift 
P( A B)
P( A) P( B)
all _ conf 
sup( X )
max_item _ sup( X )
sup( X )
coh 
| universe( X ) |
Milk
No Milk
Sum (row)
Coffee
m, c
~m, c
c
No Coffee
m, ~c
~m, ~c
~c
Sum(col.)
m
~m

all-conf
coh
2
9.26
0.91
0.83
9055
100,000
8.44
0.09
0.05
670
10000
100,000
9.18
0.09
0.09
8172
1000
1000
1
0.5
0.33
0
DB
m, c
~m, c
m~c
~m~c
lift
A1
1000
100
100
10,000
A2
100
1000
1000
A3
1000
100
A4
1000
1000
Which Measures Should Be Used?


lift and 2 are not
good measures for
correlations in large
transactional DBs
all-conf or
coherence could be
good measures
([email protected]’03)


Both all-conf and
coherence have the
downward closure
property
Efficient algorithms
can be derived for
mining (Lee et al.
@ICDM’03sub)
There are lots of
measures proposed
in the literature
Some measures are
good for certain
applications, but not
for others
What criteria should
we use to determine
whether a measure
pruning? How does
it affect these
measures?
Support-based Pruning

Most of the association rule mining algorithms
use support measure to prune rules and itemsets

Study effect of support pruning on correlation of
itemsets
– Generate 10000 random contingency tables
– Compute support and pairwise correlation for each
table
– Apply support-based pruning and examine the tables
that are removed
Effect of Support-based Pruning
All Itempairs
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
Correlation
1
1
0.
0
-1
-0
.9
-0
.8
-0
.7
-0
.6
-0
.5
-0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
Effect of Support-based Pruning
Support &lt; 0.01
7
8
9
0.
0.
1
6
0.
-1
-0
.9
-0
.8
-0
.7
-0
.6
-0
.5
-0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
Correlation
5
0
0.
0
4
50
0.
50
3
100
0.
100
2
150
0.
150
1
200
0.
200
0
250
1
250
0
0.
1
0.
2
0.
3
0.
4
0.
5
0.
6
0.
7
0.
8
0.
9
300
-1
-0
.9
-0
.8
-0
.7
-0
.6
-0
.5
-0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
300
0.
Support &lt; 0.03
Correlation
Support &lt; 0.05
300
250
200
150
100
50
Correlation
1
0
0.
1
0.
2
0.
3
0.
4
0.
5
0.
6
0.
7
0.
8
0.
9
0
-1
-0
.9
-0
.8
-0
.7
-0
.6
-0
.5
-0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
Support-based pruning
eliminates mostly
negatively correlated
itemsets
Effect of Support-based Pruning

Investigate how support-based pruning affects
other measures

Steps:
– Generate 10000 contingency tables
– Rank each table according to the different measures
– Compute the pair-wise correlation between the
measures
Effect of Support-based Pruning
Without Support Pruning (All Pairs)

All Pairs (40.14%)
1
Conviction
Odds ratio
0.9
Col Strength
0.8
Correlation
Interest
0.7
PS
CF
0.6
Jaccard
Yule Y
Reliability
Kappa
0.5
0.4
Klosgen
Yule Q
0.3
Confidence
Laplace
0.2
IS
0.1
Support
Jaccard
0
-1
Lambda
Gini
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
Correlation
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
J-measure
Mutual Info
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Red cells indicate correlation between
the pair of measures &gt; 0.85

40.14% pairs have correlation &gt; 0.85
Scatter Plot between Correlation
&amp; Jaccard Measure
Effect of Support-based Pruning

0.5%  support  50%
0.005 &lt;= support &lt;= 0.500 (61.45%)
1
Interest
Conviction
0.9
Odds ratio
Col Strength
0.8
Laplace
0.7
Confidence
Correlation
0.6
Jaccard
Klosgen
Reliability
PS
0.5
0.4
Yule Q
CF
0.3
Yule Y
Kappa
0.2
IS
0.1
Jaccard
Support
0
-1
Lambda
Gini
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
Correlation
0.4
0.6
0.8
J-measure
Mutual Info
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
61.45% pairs have correlation &gt; 0.85
Scatter Plot between Correlation
&amp; Jaccard Measure:
1
Effect of Support-based Pruning
0.5%  support  30%

0.005 &lt;= support &lt;= 0.300 (76.42%)
1
Support
Interest
0.9
Reliability
Conviction
0.8
Yule Q
0.7
Odds ratio
Confidence
0.6
Jaccard
CF
Yule Y
Kappa
0.5
0.4
Correlation
Col Strength
0.3
IS
Jaccard
0.2
Laplace
PS
0.1
Klosgen
0
-0.4
Lambda
Mutual Info
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Correlation
0.6
0.8
Gini
J-measure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Scatter Plot between Correlation
&amp; Jaccard Measure

76.42% pairs have correlation &gt; 0.85
1
Subjective Interestingness Measure

Objective measure:
– Rank patterns based on statistics computed from data
– e.g., 21 measures of association (support, confidence,
Laplace, Gini, mutual information, Jaccard, etc).

Subjective measure:
– Rank patterns according to user’s interpretation

A pattern is subjectively interesting if it contradicts the
expectation of a user (Silberschatz &amp; Tuzhilin)

A pattern is subjectively interesting if it is actionable
(Silberschatz &amp; Tuzhilin)
Interestingness via Unexpectedness

Need to model expectation of users (domain knowledge)
+
-
Pattern expected to be frequent
Pattern expected to be infrequent
Pattern found to be frequent
Pattern found to be infrequent
+ - +

Expected Patterns
Unexpected Patterns
Need to combine expectation of users with evidence from
data (i.e., extracted patterns)
Interestingness via Unexpectedness

Web Data (Cooley et al 2001)
– Domain knowledge in the form of site structure
– Given an itemset F = {X1, X2, …, Xk} (Xi : Web pages)

L: number of links connecting the pages

lfactor = L / (k  k-1)

cfactor = 1 (if graph is connected), 0 (disconnected graph)
– Structure evidence = cfactor  lfactor
P( X  X  ...  X )
– Usage evidence 
P( X  X  ...  X )
1
1
2
2
k
k
– Use Dempster-Shafer theory to combine domain
knowledge and evidence from data
```