IP Address - rAVe Publications

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COLLABORATE® Video Conferencing
Networking Basics
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ IP addressing
+ Networking Ports
+ Network Address Translation
+ Firewalls
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ “Internet Protocol address is a numerical label assigned to each device
participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for
communication” (Wikipedia, May 25th, 2011).
–
Every device on network must have unique address
–
IP Address
–
Subnet Mask
–
Default Gateway
•
An address of a router to get to another network
– Only if needing access to other network
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ How Many Addresses are there?
> IP Version 4
- 232
• 4,294,967,296
> IP Version 6
– ~ 3.4×1038 IPV6 addresses
• 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
340- undecillion
282- decillion
366- nonillion
920- octillion
938- septillion
463- sextillion
463- quintillion
374- quadrillion
607- trillion
431- billion
768- million
211- thousand
456
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ Public and Private IP addresses
+ Public addresses are routable via the Internet
– Assigned to Regional Internet Registries by Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA)
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ Private IP Addresses are not routable via the Internet
– Used in Closed networks
–
LANs, WANs, CANs, MANs
– 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.254
– 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
– 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
– 169.254.1.0 – 169.254.254.255 – link-local address (APIPA)
– 127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 – localhost
– 100.64.0.0 – 100.127.255.255 - Carrier Grade NAT (RFC6598)
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
IP Addressing
255.0.0.0 -- class A (16, 777,216)
255.255.0.0 -- class B (65,536)
255.255.255.0 -- class C (256)
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address Example
32 bits in length
•
Network
4 octets, 8 bits in length
each.
IP Address
Subnet mask
Subnet Mask
Address
Range
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
-
Host
IP Address Example
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address Example
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address Example
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address
192.168.23.45 - Host
255.255.255.0 - Subnet
192.168.23.1 – Default Gateway
MAIN Street
CENTER Street
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address
192.168.23.45 - Host
255.255.255.0 - Subnet
192.168.23.1 – Default Gateway
192.168.24.47
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address “AND”ing
+ ANDing
– The process used by a source device to find out if the destination
device is on the same network or on a different network
– 1 AND 1 = 1
– 1 AND 0 = 0
– 0 AND 0 = 0
– 0 AND 1 = 0
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Address “AND”ing
My IP Address: 192.168.23.45
11000000. 10101000. 00010111.00101101
My Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 00000000
“AND”ing equals 192.168.23.0
11000000. 10101000. 00010111.00000000
Network
Dest. IP Address: 192.168.24.47
Network
Network
Host
11000000. 10101000. 00011000.00101111
Dest. Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 00000000
“AND”ing equals 192.168.24.0
11000000. 10101000. 00011000. 00000000
Network
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network
Network
Host
IP Address “AND”ing
My IP Address: 192.168.23.45
11000000. 10101000. 00010111.00101101
My Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 00000000
“AND”ing equals 192.168.23.0
11000000. 10101000. 00010111.00000000
Network
Network
Network
Host
Dest. IP Address: 192.168.24.47
11000000. 10101000. 00011000.00101111
Dest. Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 00000000
“AND”ing equals 192.168.24.0
11000000. 10101000. 00011000. 00000000
Network
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network
Network
Host
IP Address Routing
192.168.23.45 - Host
255.255.255.0 – Subnet
192.168.23.1 – Default Gateway
Checking
Routing
Table
192.168.24.47
Router is my
“Post Office”
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Assigning IP Address’
+ DHCP
+ Static
+ Link-Local (APIPA)
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
DHCP-Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
+
+
+
+
Easy way to assign IP addresses to hosts
Helps prevent duplicate IP addresses
Most home routers have server built in
Can configure router to specify which addresses to assign
–
Configure Lease time
•
How long a client can keep IP address before renewing
•
IP address can change!!!
DHCP Server
DHCP Client
Where is my Server?
I am here! Use 192.168.23.45
I want to use 192.168.23.45
ACK! You are using 192.168.23.45
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Static IP Addressing
+ More difficult to Maintain
+ User error can cause
–
–
Duplicate IP’s
Incorrect input
+ Much longer to set up
–
Must set IP address on all devices, not server centric
+ Why use Static IP’s?
–
Video Conferencing Units
– NetPoint
– Cameras
– Media Servers
– Virtual controls
– Third Party controls using IP
– Gateway Routers need to be static
No DHCP server available
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
+ Link-Local Address
+ 169.254.1.0 – 169.254.254.255
– 169.254.0.0 /24 and 169.254.255.0 /24 are reserved
+
+
+
+
No DHCP server available
Primary configuration method fails
Not Routable!
DHCP server lease will override this address configuration
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
IP Addressing
+ IP addressing
+ Networking Ports
+ Network Address Translation
+ Firewalls
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Ports
+ “…an application-specific or process-specific software construct
serving as a communications endpoint in a computer's host
operating system. A port is associated with an IP address of the host,
as well as the type of protocol used for communication” (Wikipedia,
January 31, 2013).
+ Multiplexing
– “Door” to different applications running on a computer
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Ports
+ Network Ports
– Specific to an application serving as a communication point in a
computer’s operating system
– 16 bits in length
– 1 – 65535
– UDP or TCP ports
– Well Known Ports
•
1 – 1023
– 23 = Telnet
– 25 = SMTP
– 80 = HTTP
– 389 = LDAP
10.0.0.4:1720
IP Address
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Port
IP Address Routing
192.168.23.45 - Host
255.255.255.0 – Subnet
192.168.23.1 – Default Gateway
Checking
Routing
Table
192.168.24.47
Router is my
“Post Office”
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Ports
192.168.24.47
Jane Doe
192.168.24.47
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Ports
Jane Doe
192.168.24.47
Apartment 1720
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
192.168.24.47
Network Port examples
Network Port
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Port example
EMai
l
Web
Telnet
VC
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Ports
Sent from my Computer
Source Port
Destination Port
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Sent from Yahoo Server
IP Addressing
+ IP addressing
+ Networking Ports
+ Network Address Translation
+ Firewalls
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Address Translation
+ How does my computer with a private IP, communicate on the Internet?
–
IPv4 provides ~4.3 billion addresses
Many are reserved
–
Every device on Internet requires unique address
+ Network Address Translation
NAT (RFC3022)
•
–
–
–
Allows router to act as agent between private and public network
Changes IP information in transit
Allows Enterprise to use one set of IP Addresses internally and another
externally
“Hides” internal IP addresses from outside world
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Network Address Translation
192.168.23.45
A 192.168.23.45
216.51.70.10
B 192.168.23.46
216.51.70.11
C 192.168.23.47
216.51.70.12
Private IP
Internet
Public IP
A
192.168.23.46
B
216.51.70.11
192.168.23.47
C
+ Static NAT
>
Mapping Private IP addresses to Public IP addresses
on a one-to-one basis
> Address
mapping
not change
©2012 ClearOne
Communications.
Confidential anddoes
proprietary.
Network Address Translation
192.168.23.45
A 192.168.23.45
216.51.70.20
B 192.168.23.46
216.51.70.67
C 192.168.23.47
216.51.70.29
Private IP
These address’ can
change
Internet
Public IP
A
192.168.23.46
B
192.168.23.47
C
+ Dynamic NAT
> Maps internal IPs to a Pool of External IPs
> Many-to-Many
> Address
mapping
change
©2012 ClearOne
Communications.
Confidential andCAN
proprietary.
216.51.70.67
Network Address Translation
A
192.168.23.45
216.51.70.20
100
B
192.168.23.46
216.51.70.20
200
C
192.168.23.47
216.51.70.20
300
Public IP
Port
192.168.23.45
Private IP
A
192.168.23.46
B
192.168.23.47
C
+ Overloading
> Maps many internal IPs to a single external IP
> Many-to-One
> Port
Address
Translation
©2012 ClearOne
Communications.
Confidential
and proprietary.
216.51.70.67:200
Internet
IP Addressing
+ IP addressing
+ Networking Ports
+ Network Address Translation
+ Firewalls
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Firewalls
+ Firewalls
–
–
–
Software based
Hardware based
Protects private network
+ Packet Filters
–
–
Based on IP addresses, Protocols, Port Numbers
Stateful or Stateless
+ Application-Layer
–
–
Examines process of data packets
Application Layer Filters
+ Proxies
+ Network Address Translation
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Firewall Traversal
Enterprise LAN
WAN/Internet
DMZ
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Internal
Network
Firewall Traversal
A
192.168.23.45 Outbound to
216.51.70.10 from port 1720
B
192.168.23.46 Outbound to
216.51.70.11 from port 34562
192.168.23.45
Internet
A
216.51.70.10
192.168.23.46
216.51.70.11
192.168.23.46:21
192.168.23.46:34562
Denied
B
Denied
216.51.70.12
192.168.23.47
C
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
H.323 and Ports
+
Collaborate Video Conferencing Ports
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
389 Static TCP LDAP
1718 Static UDP Gatekeeper discovery
1719 Static UDP Gatekeeper ,RAS (Registration Admission & Status )
1720 Static TCP Q.931 (Call Setup)
1731 Static TCP Audio control
5004-6004 Dynamic TCP H.245 (Call Parameters)
(5004-5035) Dynamic TCP/UDP H235/RTP
5004-6004 Dynamic UDP (RTP) Video Data Streams, (RTP) Audio Data Streams, (RTCP)
Control Information
3000 Static TCP Collaborate VCB for 1 service
3001 Static TCP Collaborate VCB for 2 services
22136 Static TCP ClearOne Collaborate Central - Remote ClearOne Endpoint Admin
26505 Static TCP ClearOne Collaborate Central - Remote Console Login
Ports to open when using SIP:
5060 TCP and UDP
5004 UDP
10000 UDP (SIP gate service - usually 3478/9)
16348-32768 UDP (RTP, RTCP multimedia streaming)
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
No Firewall Traversal
VCB
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Firewall traversal without NetPoint
VCB
Open Ports:
1718 – 1719 UDP
1720, 1731 TCP
18100 – 18999 UDP/TCP*
389 TCP
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
80 TCP
26505, 22136 TCP
Firewall Traversal with NetPoint
VCB
Server
Open Ports:
15100 TCP
15101 - 102
UDP
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
389 TCP
IP Addressing
+ IP addressing
+ Networking Ports
+ Network Address Translation
+ Firewalls
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Streaming Your Video Conference
Multicast and Unicast
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Video Conference Streaming
+ Streaming your Video Conference
> Cost effective way to get your message to the masses
+ Multicast Streaming
–
–
–
–
One to many stream
Saves bandwidth
Not enabled over Internet
Requires multicast viewer
+ Unicast Streaming
–
–
–
–
Many – to – Many
Uses more bandwidth
Can be used over Internet
Requires Windows media player or other compatible viewer
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Multicast Streaming
Multicast
Stream
Source
S
W
I
T
C
H
One-to-Many
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
I want this service
Multicast Streaming
Multicast
Stream
Source
S
W
I
T
C
H
One-to-Many
1024 Kbps
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Unicast Streaming
Unicast Stream 1
Unicast Stream 2
Unicast Stream 3
Source
S
W
I
T
C
H
Many-to-Many
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Unicast Stream 2
Unicast Streaming
Unicast Stream 1
Unicast Stream 2
Unicast Stream 3
Source
S
W
I
T
C
H
Unicast Stream 2
1024 Kbps X 3
1024 Kbps
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Collaborate Streaming
+ Collaborate Room
– Multicast capable
•
# of viewers is dependent on network
– Unicast capable
•
Up to 20 Sstreams
+ Collaborate VCB
– Multicast capable
•
# of viewers is dependent on network
– Unicast Capable
•
Up to 50 Streams
+ Collaborate Desktop
– Multicast capable
•
# of viewers is dependent on network
– Unicast capable
•
Up to 20 Streams
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Multicast and Unicast Streaming
LAN
Internet
Multicast
Streams
SWITCH
Source
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Multicast and Unicast Streaming
LAN
Internet
Unicast
Streams
Multicast
Streams
SWITCH
Source
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Multicast and Unicast Streaming
LAN
Internet
Unicast
Streams
SWITCH
Source
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
Thank You For Your Time
www.clearone.com
©2012 ClearOne Communications. Confidential and proprietary.
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