Ehrlichiosis

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Ehrlichiosis (Rickettsial disease)
Presented By : Emily and Jamie
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This video is VERY short. It is basically just to
show you that this disease is VERY real, and
can happen to any dog.
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http://youtu.be/vYeHf7WS_rY
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Ehrlichiosis, also known as “Tropical Canine Pancytopenia”
or “Canine Rickettsiosis”, is a tick-borne disease caused by
small obligate intracellular bacteria. There are several strands
(E Canis, E Equi, E Platys, E Ewingii), but we will focus on
Ehrlichia Canis because it is the most common, and has the
most severe clinical disease.
http://youtu.be/Fq0D8k7ChRo
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It is a small, rod shaped, dimorphic, intracellular,
tick transmitted, Gram – negative proteobacterium
transmitted by the brown dog tick that resides as a
microcolony with a membrane-lined intracellular
vacuole (morula), primarily in monocytes and
macrophages of mammalian hosts
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Discovered in Algeria in 1935
First US Case was Reported in 1962
Outbreaks in British military dogs in Singapore in 1963
Ehrlichia Canis and the Vietnam War
 200 deaths in a 4 year period
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The only state that had no reported cases of
this terrible disease.. Was Vermont!
Ticks acquire the disease by feeding as either larvae, or nymphs on
infected dogs and transmit the infection as nymphs or adults
 Initial bodies are small, spherical (circular). 1-2 microns in
diameter, that develop into larger multiple units known as
morulae.
 It is NOT zoonotic, however, people with
dogs are at a higher risk for this
disease because the tic prefers dogs,
but it can move on to dogs.
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The severity of the disease depends on the dog’s age (i.e., young dogs
are more susceptible), strain of the organism, the presence of concurrent
disease, and breed (e.g., German shepherds)are more likely to be
infected.
▪ It can also be transmitted by blood transfusions
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There are different phases to the infection
 Acute Phase
 Subclinical Phase
 Chronic Phase
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There are different clinical signs to each phase
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Lymphadenopathy: swelling of lymph nodes
Anemia
Depression
Anorexia
Fever
Weight Loss
Ocular and Nasal Discharge
Dyspnea
Edema (extremities and scrotum)
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Few clinical signs
CNS symptoms
 meningeal pain
 paresis: slight or incomplete paralysis
 cranial nerve deficits
 Seizures
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Severe weight loss
Debilitation
Anterior Uveitis
Retinal Hemorrhage
CNS signs
Secondary Bacterial Infections
Bleeding Tendencies
Lethargy
Bone Marrow Suppression
DEATH! ( if not treated)
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There were no “specific” lesion areas, however. We did find..
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Positive Indirect Immunofluorescent
Antibody Test
CBC
 Pancytopenia
 Nonregenerative Anemia
 Thrombocytopenia
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Serum Chemistry: Hyperglobulinemia
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The prognosis is good if the disease is caught
in time , and treated.
 If not treated, infected dogs can be come
asymptomatic carriers of the disease for years and
eventually die from massive hemorrhage
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FIRST: PROPERLY REMOVE TICK !
Tetracycline : Three times a day for 14 Days
Doxycycline : Every 14 days
Supportive care will be required for some
animals :
 Intravenous Fluid Therapy
 Blood Transfusions
 Anabolic Steroids
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For Recurrent Infections : Tetracycline daily
for long term
Video!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mN3HDzCpiU
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To prevent yourself from getting this disease, or any
tick-bourne disease:
 Wear light colored, protective clothing
 Tape pant legs
 Wear bandannas or something to cover head
when outdoors
 Check yourself when you come inside
References
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Common Diseases of Companion Animals Book
http://www.addl.purdue.edu/newsletters/2000/winter/ce.shtml
http://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/symptoms/
http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Bockino/
http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/hb/hbehrlic.htm
http://www. Vetmed.wisc.edu/pbs/zoonoses/Ehrlichia/ehrcanisdogs.html
http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Ehrlichia_canis
http://genome.jgi-psf.org/echra/echra.home.html
Google! (for images)
And of course.. Youtube.com
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