Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea

Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Chlamydia, Gonorrhea,
Trichomoniasis, Syphilis, HIV
Dr. Nicholas Viyuoh, MD
Board Certified OB/GYN
Lock Haven Hospital-Haven Health Care
for Women
Presentation contains graphic pictures of diseases
Chlamydia

What is it?

A vaginal
infection of the
bacteria
Chlamydia
trachomatis
Normal Cervix
Image from the Practitioner’s
Handbook for the Management of
STDs
Mucopurulet cervix with inflammation,
discharge, and ectopy (abnormal cells)
due to infection with Chlamydia
Image from The Practitioner’s Handbook for the
Management of STDs
Chlamydia

How is it transmitted?



Oral, anal, vaginally, and
during childbirth
Chlamydia may be cultured
from the throats of those
who have had oral
exposure from an infected
individual
Symptoms—usually present
within 2 weeks of exposure


Female: Vaginal discharge,
burning with urination,
painful intercourse, bleeding
between menses
Male: Penile discharge,
burning with urination
Chlamydial infection within
the lymphatic system of an
infected male
www.mc3.edu/sa/hpnc/nurstd/std.htm
Chlamydia
Rates of Chlamydia by
Age
•
Note: almost all cases of
Chlamydia are college-aged
•
MOST FREQUENTLY
REPORTED BACTERIAL
STD!
Clinton County Rates
(2004) from the PA
dept of Health
•
61 reported cases in
2004 in Clinton County
•
21,385 reported in PA
in 2004, exclusive of
Philadelphia
•
Rate increasing
8.84%/year
From the Center of Disease Control
Chlamydia

Complications:



Prevention:




The bacteria that causes Chlamydia:
Chlamydia trachomatis
microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Chlamydia
Females: PID, infertility
Males: epididymitis
Abstinence
Limit sexual partners
Condoms
Treatment:

Antibiotics
 Doxycycline,
Azithromycin,
Erythromycin
Gonorrhea

What is it?



STD cause by bacteria
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Very common STD
Signs/Symptoms—usually
present within 10 days of exposure


Males: Burning with
urination,
yellow/green/white
discharge from penis,
swollen or tender testicles
Females: often
asymptomatic, painful
urination, increased
discharge
Penile discharge in individual
infected with Gonorrhea
www.mc3.edu/sa/hpnc/nurstd/std.htm
Gonorrhea

Complications



Cervical discharge in
female infected with
Gonorrhea
http://medinfo.ufl.edu/year2/mmid/bms53
00/images/b2.jpg
Females: PID, infertility
Males: epididymitis
Treatment: Antibiotics,
although we are now
seeing more resistance to
antibiotics
 Prevention: abstinence,
limit number, condoms
Trichomoniasis

What is it?


STD caused by
protozoan parasite
Trichomonas vaginalis
Signs/Symptoms


Females: frothy yellowgreen discharge with a
strong odor, pain with
intercourse and
urination, vaginal
itching
Males: irritation in
penis, discharge
“Strawberry Cervix”
from T. vaginalis
www.fpnotebook.com/ID211.htm
Trichomoniasis

Complications


Prevention




T. vaginalis, protozoa that
causes Trichomoniasis isolated
from culture
http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/not
es/intes.html
More susceptibility to
other STDs and HIV
Abstinence
Limit Sexual Partners
Condoms
Treatment

Vaginal or oral
medication: Flagyl
Syphilis

What is it?


Bacterial STD caused
by Treponema pallidum
Transmission


Have to have a sore to
transmit, but sores may
be hidden
Transmitted vaginally,
anally, orally
www.wales.nhs.uk
Syphilis

pathmicro.med.sc.edu
Signs/Symptoms
 May be asymptomatic for years
 Primary stage: painless ulcer
(chancre) lasting 3-6 weeks
 Secondary stage: rash (not
itchy), on palms of hands and
soles of feet, swollen gland,
weight loss, headaches.
 Tertiary stage: internal organ
(brain, heart, eye, nerves)
damage,
 End stage: paralysis,
numbness, blindness,
dementia, death
From the Practitioner’s Handbook of
Management of STDs
Syphilis

Diagnosis:



Treatment:


One of the 2 STDs that
is diagnosed with a
blood test (other is HIV)
The test is called an
RPR.
Antibiotics in the
primary or secondary
stages
Prevention:



Abstinence
Condoms
Limit Partners
http://www.anaisdedermatologia.org.br/_img/figuras_en/200604201
93906.jpg
HIV

HIV: what is it?



HIV: Human
Immunodeficiency
Virus
AIDS is Acquired
Immunodeficiency
Syndrome (AIDS)
Having HIV does
NOT mean you
have AIDS
http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/hiv/HIV1.html
References
http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/trends2005.
htm
 http://www.cdc.gov/std/default.htm
