Overview of SPSP Wendy Sayan, Acting Patient Safety Development Manager Aims of the Session Morning Session • Overview of the current Patient Safety Programme • New Patient Safety Programmes • Implementation, Sustainability & Spread • Developing a Patient Safety Culture Afternoon Session • Data and Measurement • Failure to Rescue and SEWS Scottish Patient Safety Programme Vision “To transform the safety of acute care in Scotland thereby improving care and radically reducing needless death and harm” Every Patient Every Time! DVD Aims • 15% reduction in mortality • 30% reduction in adverse events • Reduce healthcare associated infections • Reduce adverse surgical incidents • Reduce adverse drug events • Improve critical care outcomes • Data for improvement • Develop and build a quality improvement and patient safety culture in our hospitals • Build in long term sustainability and capability to drive this approach at all levels Work Area Change Package Element Critical Care Key objectives Establish infrastructure •Daily goal sheets •Daily multi-disciplinary rounds Infection Prevention •Ventilator bundle •Central line bundle •General infection prevention practices •Glucose control (ITU then to HDU) General Ward Risk Identification and Response •Rapid response (Outreach) teams •Early warning system Infection Prevention -MRSA Reliable care for Congestive heart failure Communication and Teamwork •Safety briefings •Communication tools (e.g. SBAR) •Prevention pressure ulcers Leadership Infrastructure to support safety Walkrounds Safety a strategic priority Medicines Management Reconciliation Anticoagulation , Insulin, Conduct an FMEA on a high risk medication process Perioperative DVT Prophylaxis Continuity of Beta blockers SSI bundle Team culture - briefings Scottish Patient Safety Programme SPSP Aims •Mortality: 15% reduction •Adverse events: 30% reduction •Ventilator associated pneumonia: 0 or 300 days between *CL CR-BSI: 0 or 300 days between *Staph aureus bacteraemias: 30% reduction *Crash Calls: 30% reduction *Surgical site infections: 50% reduction (clean) Primary Drivers GENERAL WARD Reduced infections, crash calls, pressure ulcers, AE in CHF and AMI patients PERI-OPERATIVE Reduce peri-operative adverse events: infections, cardiovascular events CRITICAL CARE Reduced Mortality, Infections, & Other Adverse Events MEDICINES MANAGEMENT Reduce adverse drug events: r/t high risk processes & medicines e.g. medicines at the interface and anticoagulation Secondary Drivers Provide reliable, timely, care using evidence-based therapies Create a collaborative team and safety culture Ensure patient and family centred care Develop infrastructure that promotes quality care Provide appropriate, reliable and timely care to patients using evidenced-based therapies to prevent surgical site infections Create a team culture attuned to detecting and rectifying intraoperative errors Provide appropriate, reliable and timely care to patients using evidenced-based therapies to prevent peri-operative cardiovascular events Provide reliable, timely, care using evidence-based therapies Integrate patient and family into care Develop infrastructure that promotes quality care Create a collaborative team and safety culture Provide reliable medicines management processes Coordination of care Patient and family involvement LEADERSHIP Provide the Leadership System to Support the Improvement of Safety and Quality Outcomes in your Board Develop the infrastructure to support quality and safety improvement Provide oversight to programme Promote the position of safety and quality in the organisation NHS Tayside Patient Safety Five years on….. Aim To improve the safety and reliability of care throughout NHS Tayside by Dec 2012 Implementation of Mental Health Patient Safety Interventions Implementation of Women & Child Health Patient Safety Interventions Continued support to sustain Current levels of reliability in all Acute Adult Work streams Spread Plan development for all acute adult workstreams Improve Patient Rescue – SEWS revision and implementation, Crash call reviews, mortality reviews Improve Sepsis and VTE – Sepsis/VTE Collaborative 2012 - 2014 Antimicrobial Management PVC Insertion & Maintenance Bundle Development Heart Failure HDU workstream Development Scottish Patient Safety Programme in Paediatrics - SPSPP Paediatrics – appropriate, timely and reliable evidence-based critical care therapies. Improve medicines management processes and decrease harm from medicines Improve paediatric perioperative outcomes Improve paediatric general ward outcomes Safety Beyond Acute – "Improving Maternity Services through teamwork solutions" Maternity Care Quality Improvement Collaborative 2012 - 2015 Outcomes: Mortality (15% reduction across NHSS) Adverse Events (30% reduction across NHSS) Implementation of Primary Care Patient Safety Interventions SIPC 1 & 2 Improve management of immunosuppressive drugs Improve care for LVSD heart failure Improve Medicine Reconciliation processes Medication Safety 180 Day Rapid Improvement Collaborative – focus on Medicines Reconciliation admission & discharge in Medicine for the Elderly Patient Safety in Prison Services SPSP Primary Care 2013 launch National Medicines Management Collaborative June 2012 launch Develop Infrastructure to Support Quality and Safety Improvement, Promoting the Position of Safety and Quality within NHS Tayside Building Capacity, using data at the frontline Continue spreading Patient Safety and Quality Improvement to non-clinical areas: Sterile Services Department Mortality & Morbidity Reviews Embedding Patient Safety and Quality Improvement in Medical Curricula Further develop the NHST Framework for Spread and sustainability Review of further development of existing Walkround Process Sepsis Collaborative Background • National collaborative launched by the Scottish Patient Safety Programme and Scottish Antimicrobial Management Group in January 2012 • Four pilot areas within NHS Tayside o o o o Ward 15, Ninewells Hospital Ward 42, Ninewells Hospital Accident & Emergency, Ninewells Hospital Ward 4, Perth Royal Infirmary • Aim to achieve 5% reduction in mortality by December 2012, rising to 10% by December 2014. • Early spread to wards 5/6 and orthopaedics How will we do this? Reliable Recognition & Assessment To improve the recognition and timely management of Sepsis in acute hospitals Outcome: Reduction in mortality in pilot population from Sepsis 5% by December 2012 10% by December 2014 Reliable Care Delivery Education & Awareness Culture of safety and Quality Improvement Patient & Family Centred Care Reliable Sepsis screening (EWS + SIRS) Ensure reliable communication across clinical teams of at risk patients Ensure timely rescue of deteriorating patient by competent teams Ensure reliable delivery of Sepsis Six within 1 hour Source Control Ensure reliable escalation of septic patients to higher level of care Improve Antimicrobial stewardship - 3 day review Education on burden of illness & current performance Provide training to staff on clinical knowledge and improvement skills Executive Sponsorship Clinical Leadership Multidisciplinary team working Develop measurement frameworks to guide improvement Involve patients & families in treatment process and care planning Sepsis Six Bundle Sepsis Acute & Specialty Data – Ward 42, Ninewells Sepsis Acute & Specialty Data – A&E, Ninewells Sepsis Acute & Specialty Data – AMU, Ninewells Implementation & Sustainability Our Theory • • • • • • • • Build a compelling case for change Work on processes and outcomes that engage hearts & minds Reduce waste and redundancy Work at the coal face and at the executive level Data feedback, data feedback, data feedback Set the tempo! Changes in process and outcomes are directly connected The changes being tested, when fully implemented, will lead to large system aims The Improvement Guide, API To Be Considered a Real Test • Test was planned, including a plan for collecting data • Plan was carried out and data was collected • Time was set aside to analyse data and study the results • Action was based on what was learned Move Quickly to Testing Changes • • • • • • Year Quarter Month Week Day Hour “What tests can we complete by next Tuesday?” Start Small ~ 1:3:5:All Select your pilot area to start to test: • 1 patient • 1 day • 1 admission • 1 clinician Repeated Use of the PDSA Cycle Changes That Result in Improvement Model for Improvement What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? A P S D What change can we make that will result in improvement? Implementation of Change A P S D Hunches Theories Ideas Followup Tests Very Small Scale Test Wide-Scale Tests of Change PVC Bundle, Orthopaedic Ward - PDSA Cycle Implement PVC Bundle all Wd 16 patients Ninewells Hospital 95% compliance with PVC Bundle Process by Dec 2009 Adapt and test existing PVC Bundle process carried out within ward 16 to align with SPSP PVC Bundle Implementation of PVC bundle process and audit tool Continue to test process and accompanying audit documentation with all patients and involving all staff to ensure all issues are discovered and resolved Further adaptation of process, test with 3-5 patients and 3 nurses, parallel testing of locally developed audit tool to suit revised process. Test SPSP PVC Bundle within orthopaedic clinical setting with one patient and one nurse. PVC maintenance was already carried out within this Major Joint Replacement Orthopaedic Ward. Testing was required around the implementation of the SPSP Bundle which differed slightly. 5 Key Principles of Improvement: • Knowing why you need to improve • Feedback mechanisms to tell if your improvement is happening • Develop effective change that will result in improvement • Test a change before implementing • Know when and how to make the change permanent Local Display and Feedback of Data Developing a Patient Safety Culture What is Quality in Healthcare? Traditional Approach New Approach Attitude • Quality is what we do • Scope • Clinical effectiveness and safety • Focus • Patients (populations)/people • Requisites • Standards delivered by • high quality education Scale • Large scale ‘roll-out’ of • evidence Content adapted from a presentation from Professor Peter Davey, University of Dundee Quality is what we strive for Effective, Safe, Patient Centred, Timely, Equitable, Efficient Patients, populations, and Systems Continuous improvement through learning Small scale testing and context-specific spread Bureaucratic: Standardise, don’t paralyse Supporting frontline staff is critical We are increasingly realising not only how critical measurement is to the quality improvement we seek but also how counterproductive it can be to mix measurement for accountability or research with measurement for improvement Solberg et al Journal on Quality Improvement 1997, 23:135-147. Patient Safety Dashboard – this is audit of everyone’s work Patient Safety Executive Walkrounds “I found it a very interesting experience and valued the opportunity to spend time with senior staff from the management side of NHS Tayside, who had time to listen to me and share their experience and knowledge.” Staff Comment on experience of Walkround Patient Safety Executive Walkrounds Quality Improvement & Safety • Both parties willing to discuss relevant issues, and being focussed on continuous improvement regarding patient care & safety. • Interaction with staff and patients and the completion of the quality loop. • Visible reminder for staff of the importance of the safety agenda • Openness of process and opportunity to see evidence of patient safety & improvement work. • Opportunity to look for compliance with safety processes Communication • Discussion with the Senior Charge Nurse after the walk around the ward is particularly useful. • Positive engagement with staff team and service leads • Opportunity to talk with patients and staff • Open discussions • Giving staff the opportunity to showcase what they are doing well and receive recognition for their hard work. The Healthcare Quality Strategy for NHSScotland Institute of Medicine’s 6 Dimensions of Quality Scottish Government, May 2010 • What does high quality healthcare look like for you, your team and your service- and what gets in the way of achieving this, all the time? • What is the first simple thing you have the power to change, immediately, or in the very short term, which would improve the reliability of the quality of the service deliver today? • What other practical ideas do you have that would improve the experience and outcomes of care for patients, carers and for us all? • What prevents you from putting this idea into practice? • What else would it take to make this happen? What are your learning objectives? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are human factors and why are they important? Understanding systems & complexity in health care Being an effective team player Understanding and learning from errors Understanding and managing clinical risk Use of quality improvement methods Engaging with patients and carers Data & Measurement Measurement for Improvement • Improvement is not about measurement however, effective measurement and data collection plays an important role. • Improvement is about making changes to processes and systems, with measurement playing a key role in the process. The Improvement Guide, API Why are you measuring? Improvement? The answer to this question will guide your entire quality measurement journey! Overall Project Measures vs. PDSA Cycle Measures Achieving Aim Adapting Changes During PDSA Cycles Data for Project Measures: - Overall results related to the project aim (outcome, process, and balancing measures) for the life of the project Data for PDSA Measures: - Quantitative data on the impact of a particular change - Qualitative data to help refine the change - Collect only during cycles Data Management • Initial local reporting using Microsoft Excel • National use of IHI SPSP Extranet • Development of NHS Tayside Data Dashboards Can be filtered down to ward level Presenting your data VAP Rate - ICU, Ninewells Hospital 70.00 What happened here? Implementation of daily goals 50.00 40.00 Chlorhexidine oral gel introduced over previous 12 months 30.00 20.00 median (13.89) 10.00 0.00 Au g -0 5 Oc t-0 5 De c -0 5 Fe b-0 6 Ap r-0 6 Ju n-0 Au 6 g -0 6 Oc t-0 6 De c -0 6 Fe b-0 7 Ap r-0 7 Ju n-0 7 Au g -0 7 Oc t-0 7 De c -0 7 Fe b-0 8 Ap r-0 8 Ju n-0 8 Au g -0 8 Oc t-0 8 De c -0 8 Ja n-0 9 Ma r-0 9 Ma y -0 9 Ju l-0 9 Se p -0 9 No v -0 9 Ja n-1 0 Ma r-1 0 Ma y -1 0 Ju l-1 0 Se p -1 0 No v -1 0 Ja n-1 1 VAP Rate per 1000 patient days 60.00 ICU now admitting all neuro patients following closure of neuro ICU Month If you don’t understand the variation that lives in your data, you will be tempted to ... • Deny the data (It doesn’t fit my view of reality!) • See trends where there are no trends • Try to explain natural variation as special events • Blame and give credit to people for things over which they have no control Data Reporting Structure • Data recorded locally using IT Dashboard System • Reports created by each Directorate and Patient Safety Team for local and national reporting purposes • SPSP reporting to Clinical Quality Forum, Executive Management Team and within local Clinical Governance Groups Measurement Principles • • • • • Develop aims before measuring Design measures around aims ‘How Good, By When’ Establish a reliable baseline Track progress over time • The key purpose of measurement for improvement is for learning. • Teams need measures to give them feedback that the changes they are making are having the desired effect and are resulting in improvement. FAILURE TO RESCUE CRASH CALLS & SEWS Diane Campbell Programme Director Older Peoples Improvement Collaborative Purpose of crash calls reviews • Gather reliable & real time information • Analysis to identify human factors & issues with SEWS Examine potential opportunities for earlier interventions and learning • • Reflection – individual & team Crash Call review tool SBAR tool Crash call review tool page 2 Human factors Prioritisation of Care DNA/CPR Team working Overnight Observations Communication SUMMARY OF CRASH CALL FINDINGS NINEWELLS & PRI Underscoring Observations performed in isolation Examples of Clinical Excellence Delayed Escalation Lack of Documentation No increased Frequency when SEWS >2 Prolonged periods With No Observations SEWS Development Drivers for Change: • Based on review findings there was recognised need to review the existing chart • Local SEWS data • National developments (NEWS)/NICE Clinical Guideline 50 SEWS journey so far…… (Nov 2011present) Modification to oxygen recording Target saturations Aid appropriate management Additional score of 1 if Receiving supplemental oxygen Document Oxygen Code on SEWS Modifications to Blood Pressure & Neurological Assessment BP < 80mmHg Now score a 3 Pain & Unresponsive Score a 3 Integrating Sepsis Triggers SEWS ≥4: THINK SEPSIS If 2 or more of the following: • Temperature >38 or <36 •Altered mental state •Respiratory Rate >20 breaths per min •Known/suspected neutropenia •White cell <4 or >12 AND clinical suspicion or confirmed Infection Commence ‘Sepsis 6 Bundle within 1 hour’ Clear monitoring plan Escalations/Exclusion ‘Red Flag’ Improving Nursing Documentation Monitoring Guide Frequency Of Obs Pilot Ward CQI Data Pilot ward Testing SEWS is fundamental to patient safety & should guide safe monitoring for EVERY PATIENT EVERY TIME!