CT PATHOLOGY

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CT PATHOLOGY
Subdural Hematoma
Subdural hematomas are usually the
result of a serious head injury. When one
occurs in this way, it is called an "acute"
subdural hematoma. Acute subdural
hematomas are among the deadliest of
all head injuries. The bleeding fills the
brain area very rapidly, compressing
brain tissue. This often results in brain
injury.
Subdural Hematoma
Subdural Hematoma
Stroke
Symptoms
If you have symptoms of a stroke, seek
emergency medical care. General symptoms
of a stroke include:
Sudden numbness, paralysis, or weakness in
your face, arm, or leg, especially on only one
side of your body.
New problems with walking or balance.
Sudden vision changes.
Drooling or slurred speech.
New problems speaking or understanding
simple statements, or feeling confused.
A sudden, severe headache that is different from
past headaches.
Symptoms vary depending on whether the
stroke is caused by a clot or bleeding. The
location of the blood clot or bleeding and the
extent of brain damage can also affect
symptoms.
Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
Tumor
A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain.
Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are
noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous
(malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain
tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to
your brain (secondary, or metastatic brain tumors).
Tumor
Tumor
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
• Multiple sclerosis or MS is a disease that
affects the brain and spinal cord resulting in
loss of muscle control, vision, balance, and
sensation (such as numbness). With MS, the
nerves of the brain and spinal cord are
damaged by one's own immune system. Thus,
the condition is called an autoimmune
disease.
Multiple Sclerosis
Trauma
Trauma
• Epidural or extradural hematoma (haematoma) is a type of
traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs
between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the
central nervous system) and the skull. The dura mater also
covers the spine, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the
spinal column. Often due to trauma, the condition is
potentially deadly because the buildup of blood may increase
pressure in the intracranial space and compress delicate brain
tissue. The condition is present in one to three percent of
head injuries.[1] Between 15 and 20% of patients with epidural
hematomas die of the injury.[2]
Trauma Epidural
Trauma
Breast MRI
• For a breast MRI, the woman usually lies face
down, with her breasts positioned through openings
in the table. In order to check breast positioning, the
technologist watches the MRI through a window
while monitoring for any potential movement.
• A breast MRI usually requires the use of a contrast
dye that is injected into a vein in the arm before or
during the procedure. The dye may help create
clearer images that outline abnormalities more
easily.
Breast MRI
Breast MRI
Breast MRI
Breast MRI
Contrecoup Brain Injury A specific area of brain injury
located directly opposite to the site of impact to the
head that results from linear violent collisions of the
brain with the skull.
http://www.neuroskills.com/swfcoup.html
Isodense Subdural Hematoma
CT image with contrast demonstrates
an isodense subdural hematoma in the
left frontoparietal region.
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital defect between the
arteries and veins. The condition affects the connection between these blood
vessels, and disrupts the flow of blood between them. Although this defect
can occur anywhere, AVMs are most common in the brain or spine.
AVM
AVM
AVM
AVM
AVM
Adult polycystic
liver
Liver/Fresh
Blood
Liver/Disease
Fibrocystic
Liver/Disease
(sono.)
Fresh blood in
heart
Fusion Imaging
Spleenic Disease
Kidney Disease
Gastric Disease
Cervical F/X
F/X
F/X
F/X & dislocations
F/X C-spine
F/X Femoral head
MRI
F/X Tarsal Bone
MRI
• An acoustic neuroma is a noncancerous (benign), often slowgrowing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the
brain. It is located behind the ear right under the brain.
• An acoustic neuroma is believed to occur when there is a defect in a
gene that normally prevents tumors from forming. The cause of the
genetic defect is not known. However, acoustic neuroma is often linked
with the genetic disorder
The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown, although genetic and
environmental factors may contribute to their development.
Arteriovenous malformation - cerebral
The cause of cerebral arteriovenous
malformation (AVM) is unknown. The
condition occurs when arteries in the brain
connect directly to nearby veins without
having the normal vessels (capillaries)
between them.
stroke is defined as the sudden onset of a neurologic
deficit attributable to a vascular cause. A stroke results
from lack of blood flow to an area of the brain. Without
adequate blood flow, neurons (nerve cells) in the brain
will begin to die
A brain abscess is a collection of immune cells, pus,
and other material in the brain, usually from a
bacterial or fungal infection.
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that
affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous
system).
An extradural hemorrhage is bleeding between the
inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain
(called the "dura").
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding in the area
between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the
brain. This area is called the subarachnoid space.
contrecoup injury: an injury, usually involving the brain, in
which the tissue damage is on the side
opposite the trauma site, as when a blow
to the left side of the head results in brain
damage on the right side.
Alzheimer's is a brain disease that causes
problems with memory, thinking and
behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly
and get worse over time, becoming severe
enough to interfere with daily tasks.
AIDS and the Brain:
HIV infection may cause a number of
problems in the brain and nervous system,
including:
Damage to the brain
Damage to the spinal cord by way of
encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes
surrounding the brain)
Nerve damage
Difficulties in thinking
Behavioral changes
Poor circulation
Headache
Stroke.
Anoxic Brain Injury - What is it?
Anoxic brain injury is caused by a lack of oxygen going to the
brain. The brain begins losing brain cells after only four
minutes without oxygen. There
Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia
solium (T. solium), a pork tapeworm, that creates cysts in
different areas in the body.
Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological disorder caused
by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord
within the spinal column. These attachments cause an abnormal
stretching of the spinal cord.
The bones (vertebrae) that form the spine in
your back are cushioned by small, spongy
discs. When these discs are healthy, they
act as shock absorbers for the spine and
keep the spine flexible. But when a disc is
damaged, it may bulge or break open. This
is called a herniated disc. It may also be
called a slipped or ruptured disc.
herniated
disc
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of areas in the lumbar (back)
or cervical (neck) spine, which causes pressure on the
spinal cord or one or more of the spinal nerves.
Burst fracture is a descriptive term for an injury to
the spine in which the vertebral body is severely
compressed. They typically occur from severe
trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident or a fall
from a height.
This CT scan of C2 clearly shows the
fracture
C2 (Hangman’s Fracture)
odontoid fractures travel through the upper portion of
the body of C2. They are mechanically unstable,
since they allow the dens and the occiput to move as
a unit.
Tumors of the parotid gland are mostly benign. From the
information I've been able to find, it seems only 20% are
malignant.
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