PREPARING INJECTIONS - Attack Those Nursing Skills

NUR 113 - Welcome to
SKILL 22-1 Preparing
Injections: Ampules & Vials –
along with a brief description on mixing insulin
PARENTERAL MEDICATIONS
 Before we begin, Let’s review some things about Parenteral
Medications
 The route of medication administration is the path by which a drug comes in contact with
the body.
 Parenteral means administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract.
 Medications administered by the parenteral route enter the body tissues and the
circulatory system by injection.
 Injected medications are more quickly absorbed than oral medications; and parenteral
routes are used when patients are vomiting, cannot swallow, and / or are restricted from
taking oral fluids.
PARENTERAL MEDICATIONS – CONT’D
There are four routes for parenteral administration:
 1. SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION: Injection into tissues just under the dermis of the
skin.
 2. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION (IM): Injection into the body of a muscle.
 3. INTRADERMAL INJECTION (ID): Injection into the dermis just under the
epidermis.
 4. INTRAVENOUS INJECTION (IV) or INFUSION: Injection into the vein.
PARENTERAL MEDICATIONS – CONT’D
Failure to inject a medication correctly result sin
complications such as inappropriate drug response (e.g.,
too rapid or too slow), nerve injury with associated pain,
localized bleeding, tissue necrosis, and sterile abscess.
Over 16 billion preventive and curative injections are
administered each year.
Intradermal, Subcutaneous & Intramuscular
Injections
PREVENTING INFECTION DURING AN INJECTION:
 Prevent Contamination of Solution: Ampules should not sit open and medication should be
removed quickly.
 Prevent Needle Contamination: Avoid letting needle touch contaminated surface (e.g.,
outer edges of ampule or vial, outer surface of needle cap, you hands, countertop, or table
surface).
 Avoid touch the length of the plunder or inner part of the barrel. Keep tip of syringe covered with a
cap or needle.
 Prepare the Skin: Wash skin soiled with dirt, drainage or feces with soap and water. Use
friction and a circular motion while cleaning with an antiseptic swab. Swab from center of
site and move outward in a 5 cm (2 inch) radius.
 Reduce transfer of microorganisms: Perform Hand Hygiene for a minimum of 15 seconds.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSCLES:
VENTROGLUTEAL MUSCLE:
 Deep & situated away from major nerves & blood
vessles
 Easily identified by prominent bony landmarks
 Preferred site for medications that are larger in
volume, more viscous and irritating
 Less painful than vastus lateralis
 Recommended as pediatric IM injection site for
children of all ages.
VASTUS LATERALIS
Absence of major nerves &
blood vessels
Drug absorption rapid
Site used for immunizations
in children
Recommended as pediatric
IM injection site for infants up
to 12 months of age.
DELTOID MUSCLE
 Easily accessible but not well
developed in most patients
 Used for small volumes of
medication
 Faster absorption rate
 May be used as vaccination
site for adults, based on
development of muscle.
 Recommended as pediatric
IM injection site for children
18 months and older.
SAFETY GUIDELINES for administering an IM
 Patient safety in administering medication involves following the six rights of
medication administration.
 1. Right Medication
 2. Right Dose
 3. Right Patient
 4. Right Route
 5. Right Time
 6. Right Documentation
SAFETY GUIDELINES – CONT’D:
Remember to try and avoid distractions!
 1. Be vigilant: avoid distractions while preparing an injection. Be sure that your
patients receive the appropriate medications. Know why your patient is receiving each
medication; know what you need to do before, during and after medication
administration; and evaluate the effectiveness of medications and any adverse effects
after administration.
 2. Verify that the medications have not expired.
 3. Use at least two identifiers before administering medications and check against the
medication administration record.
 4. No interruption Zones have been recommended by the Institute for Safe Medicine
Practices
 5. Minimize a patient’s discomfort when giving an injection
PREPARING INJECTIONS: AMPULES & VIALS
Let’s talk about Ampules:
 Ampules contain single doses of injectable medication in a liquid form and are available in
sizes from 1 to 10 mL or more.
 An ampule is made of glass with a constricted, pre-scored neck that is snapped off to allow
access to the medication.
 A colored ring around the neck indicates where the ampule is pre-scored to be broken
easily.
 Medication is easily withdrawn from the ampule by aspirating with a filter needle & syringe.
 Filter needles must be used when preparing medications from a glass ampule to prevent
glass particles from being drawn into the syringe
 Do not use the filter needle to administer the medication.
SKILL 22-1: Preparing injections: Ampules & Vials
 ASSESSMENT:
 Check accuracy & completeness of each MAR or computer
printout with prescriber’s written medication order. Check
patient’s name, medication name and dosage, route of
administration, and time of administration. Recopy or reprint any
portion of MAR that is difficult to read.
 Assess patient’s medical and medication history.
 Assess patient’s history of allergies: Know type of allergies and
normal allergic response: In other words, if a person has an allergy,
what is the response to this allergy if it occurs?
 Review medication reference information for action, purpose, side
effects and nursing implications.
 Assess patient’s body build, muscle size, and weight if giving
subcutaneous or intramuscular medication (IM).
PLANNING: Sometimes things aren’t as easy as they seem
 1. Expected Outcomes following completion of procedure:
Proper dose is prepared:
 No air bubbles are in syringe barrel.
 Air bubbles displace medication.
 Elimination of air ensure accuracy of medication dose.
IMPLEMENTATION:
 1. Perform
hand hygiene.
 Prepare medication
 If using a medication cart, move it outside patient’s room.
 Unlock medication drawer or cart or log onto computerized
medication dispensing system.
 Follow agencies “No-Interruption Zone” policy.
Distractions can be deadly! Prepare medications for one
patient at a time. Keep all pages of MAR’S or computer printouts
for one patient together or look at only once patient’s electronic
MAR at a time.
 Select correct drug from stock supply or unit-dose drawer.
Compare label of medication with MAR computer printout or
computer screen.
 Check expiration date on each medication, one at a time.
IMPLEMENTATION – CONT’D
 Calculate drug dose as necessary. Double-check calculation. Ask another nurse to
check calculations if needed. Don’t be embarrassed about this!
 If preparing a controlled substance, check record for previous drug count and compare
with supply available.
 Do not leave drugs unattended.
 PREPARED AMPULE:
 Tap top of ampule lightly and quickly with finger until fluid moves from its neck.
 Place small gauze pad around neck of ampule
 Snap neck of ampule quickly and firmly away from hands (this protects your fingers and face from
shattering glass).
PREPARING THE AMPULE – CONT’D
 Draw up medication quickly, using a filter needle long enough to reach bottom of ampule to
access medication.
 Hold ampule upside down or set it on a flat surface. Insert filter needle into center of ampule
opening. D not allow needle tip or shaft to touch rim of ampule.
 Aspirate medication into a syringe by gently pulling back on plunger.
 Keep needle tip under surface of liquid. Tip ampule to bring all fluid within reach of needle.
 If you aspirate air bubbles, do not expel air into ampule.
PREPARING THE AMPULE – CONT’D
 To expel excess air bubble, remove needle from ampule. Hold syringe vertically with
needle pointing up. Tap side of syringe to cause bubbles to rise toward needle. Draw
back slightly on plunger and push plunger upward to eject the air. Do not eject the fluid.
 If syringe contains excess fluid, use sink for disposal. Hold syringe vertically with needle tip
up and slanted slightly toward sink. Slowly eject excess fluid into the sink. Recheck fluid
level in syringe by holding it vertically.
 Cover needle with its safety sheath or cap. Replace filter needle with regular sharps with
engineered sharps injury protection needle.
PREPARING THE AMPULE: VIDEO TO
WATCH
 Please note that your book does not provide you with a video on how to prepare
injections on Ampules & Vials.
 I have chosen one for you via YOUTUBE.
 Please remember, this video was not provided by the school, but by me!
 Not all videos are going to be interesting, but I tried to choose the best one possible, for
the required skill.
 DRAWING UP MEDICATION FROM AN AMPULE:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMrJ4MKpHRw
PREPARING THE VIAL CONTAINING A SOLUTION
 Remove cap covering top of unused vial to expose sterile rubber seal. If a multi-dose vial
has been used before, cap is already removed. Firmly and briskly wipe surface of rubber
seal with alcohol swab and allow it to dry.
 Pick up syringe and remove needle cap or cap covering needleless access device. Pull
back on plunger to draw amount of air into syringe equivalent to volume of medication to
be aspirated from the vial.
 CLINICAL DECISION POINT: Some medications and agencies require use of a filter needle
when preparing medications from vials. Check agency policy or medication reference. If
you use a filter needle to aspirate medication, you need to change it to a regular SESIP
needle of the appropriate size to administer the medication.
PREPARING THE VIAL – CONT’D
 With vial on flat surface, insert tip of needle or needleless device through center of
rubber seal. Apply pressure to tip of needle during insertion.
 Project air into air space of vial, holding onto the plunger. Hold plunger firmly;
plunger is sometimes forced backward by air pressure within vial.
 Invert vial, while keeping firm hold on syringe and plunger. Hold vial between
thumb and middle fingers of non-dominant hand. Grasp end of syringe barrel
and plunger with thumb and forefinger of dominant hand to counteract pressure
in vial.
PREPARING THE VIAL – CONT’D
 Keep tip of needle or needleless device below fluid level.
 Allow air pressure from vial to fill syringe gradually with medication. If necessary, pull back
slightly on plunger to obtain correct amount of medication.
 When you obtain desired volume, position needle in needleless device into air space of vial;
tap side of syringe barrel gently to dislodge any air bubbles. Eject any air remaining at top
of syringe into vial.
 Remove needle or needleless access device from vial by pulling back on barrel of syringe.
 Hold syringe at eye level at 90 degree angle to ensure correct volume and absence of air
bubble. Remove any remaining air by tapping barrel to dislodge any air bubbles. Draw
back slightly on plunger; then push it upward to eject air. Do not eject fluid. Recheck
volume of medication.
PREPARING THE VIAL – CONT’D
 If you need to inject medication into the patient’s tissues, change the needle to the
appropriate gauge and length according to route of medication administration.
 For multi-dose vial make label that includes date of opening, concentration of drug per
milliliter, and your initials.
 PREPARED VIAL CONTAINING A POWDER:
 Removed cap covering vials or medication and diluent, swabbed both seals with alcohol, and
allowed to dry.
 Draw up manufacturers suggestion for volume of diluent into syringe.
 Inserted needle or needleless device through rubber seal of vial of powdered medication, injected
diluent, removed needle.
 Mixed medication thoroughly, rolled in palms, did not shake.
PREPARED VIAL CONTAING A POWDER – CONT’D
 Determined appropriate dose after reconstitution.
 Drew medication into syringe, did not add additional air.
 Compared level of medication with MAR
 Disposed of soiled supplies, placed broken ampule / used vials and used needle or
needleless device in puncture and leak proof container, cleaned work area, performed
hand hygiene.
 EVALUATION:
 Compared MAR with label of prepared drug, compared dose in syringe with desired dose.
 Identified unexpected outcomes
UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES
 Air bubbles remain in syringe
 Incorrect dose of medication is prepared:
 Related interventions:
Expel air from syringe and add medication to it until you prepare
correct dose.
Discard prepared dose
Prepare correct new one.
END OF SKILL 22-1 FOR PREPARING INJECTIONS; AMPULES &
VIALS
This is the end of this skill, but there is also a procedural
guideline 22-1:
Mixing Parenteral Medications in One Syringe:
I’m not going to go into detail regarding this, as I would
just be performing a summary from your book.
I will provide you with some basic information though.
PROCEDURAL GUIDELINE 22-1: MIXING
PARENTERAL MEDICATIONS IN ONE SYRINGE
 Mixing compatible medications avoids the need to give a patient
more than one injection.
 When you mix medications from a vial and an ampule, you prepare
medications from the vial first.
 Then you withdraw medication from the ampule using the same
syringe and a filter needle.
 When mixing medications from two vials, do not contaminate one
medication with another, ensure that the final dose is accurate and
maintain aseptic techniques.
 For example, insulin, which is required to manage a patient’s
diabetes, can be mixed within the same syringe if they are
compatible.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
MIXING INSULINS
 When mixing insulins, always prepare the short or rapid acting insulin first to
prevent it from being contaminated with the longer acting insulin.
 Patients whose blood glucose is well controlled on a mixed-insulin dose should
maintain their individual routine when preparing and administering their insulin
doses.
 No other medication or diluent should be mixed with any insulin product unless
approved by the prescriber.
 Do not mix insulin glargine (Lantus) or insulin detemir (Levemir) with any other
types of insulin and do not administer them intravenously.
 Inject rapid-acting insulins mixed with NPH insulin within 15 minutes before a
meal.
 Verify insulin dosages during preparation with another nurse.
MIXING INSULINS
 Again, While you need to know this, I’m not going to go into step by step directions.
 I will describe the following:
 MIXING MEDICATIONS FROM TWO VIALS:
 A. Take syringe with needleless device or filter needle and aspirate volume of air
equivalent to first medication dose. (Vial A).
 B. Inject air into vial A making sure that the needle or needleless device does not touch
solution.
 C. Holding onto plunger, withdraw needle or needleless device and syringe from Vial A.
Aspirate air equivalent to second medication dose (Vial B) into syringe.
MIXING MEDICATIONS FROM
TWO VIALS – CONT’D
 D. Insert needle or needleless device into Vial B, inject volume of air into vial B, and withdraw
medication from vial B into syringe.
 E. Withdraw needle or needleless device and syringe from vial B. Ensure that proper volume
has been obtained.
 F. Determine on syringe scale what the combined volume of medications should measure.
 G. Invert needle or needleless device into Vial A, being careful not to push plunger and
expel medication within syringe into vial. Invert vial and carefully withdraw the desired
amount of medication from vial A into syringe.
 H. Withdraw needle or needleless device and expel any excess air from syringe. Check fluid
level in syringe for proper dose. Medications are now mixed.
 I. change needle or needleless device for appropriate size needle if medication is being
injected. Keep needle or needless device capped until administration time.
MIXING INSULINS
 A. If patient takes insulin that is cloudy, roll bottle of insulin between hands to re-suspend
insulin preparation.
 B. Wipe off top of both insulin vials with alcohol swab.
 C. Verify insulin dose against MAR.
 D. If mixing rapid or short acting insulin with intermediate or long-acting insulin, take insulin
syringe and aspirate volume of air equivalent to dose to be withdrawn from intermediate
or long acting insulin first. If two intermediate or long acting insulins are mixed, it makes
no difference which vial is prepared first.
 E. Insert needle and inject air into vial of intermediate or long acting insulin. Do not let tip
of needle touch solution.
MIXING INSULINS – CONT’D
 F. Remove syringe from vial of insulin without aspirating medication.
 G. With the same syringe, inject air equal to the dose of rapid or short acting insulin into
vial and withdraw correct dose into syringe.
 H. Remove syringe from rapid or short acting insulin and remove any air bubbles to ensure
accurate dose.
 I. Verify short acting insulin dosage with MAR and show insulin prepared in syringe to
another nurse to verify that correct dosage of insulin was prepared. Determine which
point on syringe scale the combined units of insulin should measure by adding the number
of units of both insulins together (e.g., 4 units Regular + 10 units NPH = 14 units total. Verify
combined dosage.)
MIXING INSULINS – CONT’D
 J. Place needle of syringe back into vial of intermediate or long acting
insulin. Be careful not to push plunger and inject insulin in syringe into vial.
 K. Invert vial and carefully withdraw desired amount of insulin into syringe.
 L. Withdraw needle and check fluid level in syringe. Keep needle of
prepared syringe sheathed or capped until ready to administer medication.
END OF SKILL
This is the end of the skill.
 Your book does not provide a video on how to mix insulins. I have found one on you tube for
you to view.
 Please remember, this video was not picked out by the school, but by me and while I am
making these power point presentations for the students at RCC, I am not affiliated with this
college.
 Please feel free to watch the video, but practice what is in your book, as well.
MIXING INSULIN – ON YOU TUBE:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jn8Yuo20G78
YOU TUBE VIDEOS TO WATCH; Please
remember, these are the videos that I
picked out, not the school!
 1. Reconstitution of Powdered medication you tube video:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ECYuiHFObU
 2. MIXING INSULIN – ON YOU TUBE:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jn8Yuo20G78
 3. DRAWING UP MEDICATION FROM AN AMPULE:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMrJ4MKpHRw
 4. Drawing up medication from a vial:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__BVDcbIOoA
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