MTP - CACCN Toronto Chapter

Massive Transfusion Protocol
K. Pavenski, MD FRCPC
Head, Div. Transfusion Medicine
October 31, 2013
• What is massive hemorrhage/massive
• Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP)
Activation criteria
Blood products
Transfusion goals
Common errors and adverse events
• There is no universal definition of massive
hemorrhage (MH) or transfusion (MT)
– Commonly used definition is a requirement for more
than 6 units of red blood cells (RBC) in 4 hours
– Rate of bleeding and likelihood of rapidly achieving
hemostasis are important considerations
• MH is a rare, complex and high stress medical
• MH is associated with a high mortality rate
• Massive hemorrhage and massive transfusion
may occur in the following clinical contexts:
– Trauma
– Post-partum hemorrhage
– Cardiovascular complication (ex. ruptured
abdominal aortic aneurysm)
– Acute upper GI bleeding
– Post surgery
• MTP is an algorithm for management of a
patient with a massive hemorrhage
• MTPs have been shown to
– Improve patient outcomes
– Reduce patient mortality
– Reduce wastage of blood products
• St. Michael’s MTP can be found on CPPS
• 62 MTP activations per year at SMH
– 5 in MSICU
• GIB – 3
• Bleeding due to drug overdose – 1
• Bleeding kidney mass - 1
Principles of MT management
• Early recognition of blood loss
• Maintenance of tissue perfusion and oxygenation by restoration
of blood volume and haemoglobin
• Control of bleeding with early surgical, endoscopic or
radiological intervention – “damage control surgery”
• Early management of coagulopathy
• Early administration of antifibrinolytics (ex. Tranexamic acid)
• Maintenance of normothermia and normal calcium levels
• Reversal of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications if
• Monitoring for and management of complications of massive
MTP Activation Criteria: General
• In a bleeding patient, recognized need for
uncrossmatched RBC
• Actual substantial blood loss
– estimated 1500cc of blood lost OR at least 6 RBC
transfused with anticipated ongoing hemorrhage
• Anticipated substantial blood loss requiring
transfusion of at least 6 RBC within minutes to
MTP Activation Criteria: Specific
• Penetrating trauma AND persistent
hypotension (2 measurements of SBP< 90
mmHg taken 5 min apart).
• Blunt trauma AND persistent hypotension
AND one of the following:
a. Massive haemothorax
b. Positive FAST scan
c. Pelvic fracture
MTP Activation Criteria: Specific
Post partum haemorrhage (PPH):
• >500 cc vaginal blood loss AND hypotension not responding to
crystalloid bolus
• >1000 cc blood loss following caesarean section AND hypotension
not responding to crystalloid bolus
• Suspected bleeding AND hypotension not responding to crystalloid
bolus in a post-partum patient.
Bleeding in cardiovascular patients:
• Known/suspected ruptured or leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm
• Postoperative chest tube drainage >1000 cc in 30 minutes or less
• Cardiac or aortic rupture
• Atrial leak
MTP Activation: Where
• MTP may be administered in the following clinical
– Emergency Department
– Operating Rooms
– Intensive Care Units
• If the need for MTP arises in any other area,
initiate MTP and transfer the patient as soon as
practically possible to an appropriate location for
further resuscitation
MTP: Team
• MTP lead
– Is a physician in charge of patient care during MTP
• In ER, ER physician or Trauma Team Leader
• In OR, anaesthesiologist
• In ICU, staff physician or clinical fellow
• In all other areas, staff anaesthesiologist
assumes the role of MTP lead
MTP: Team
• MTP assist
– RN, RRT, or perfusionist
– Administers IV fluids, medications, blood
products, monitors patient’s vital signs, charts
– Nurse assigned to the patient will become MTP
MTP: Team
• Transfusion Medicine (TM)
– One technologist is usually designated to assist
with MTP and will keep track of what products are
issued and when
– TM performs compatibility testing and prepares
blood products for transfusion
– TM regularly communicates with the team at
patient’s bedside
– TM may provide recommendations on optimal
transfusion therapy
MTP: Team
• Additional resources may be necessary
• Respiratory therapist
– Assists with airway and oxygen therapy
– Administers IV fluids and blood products
• Perfusionist
– Sets up cell salvage if appropriate
– Administers IV fluids and blood products
• Porter
– Delivers laboratory samples to the laboratory and blood
products from TM to the patient
– Returns empty coolers and untransfused blood products to
MTP: Activation
• MD assesses the patient and makes a decision
to activate MTP
• MD (or delegate) calls Transfusion Medicine
Laboratory (ext 5084) and requests to activate
MTP: Activation
• MD (or delegate) is to provide the following
information to TM:
– Patient location and contact telephone number
– Patient’s name and MRN
• If patient’s identity is not known, state MRN, gender and
approximate age
– Name of the MD who will lead MTP
– State whether the patient is/appears to be pregnant
• May require CMV negative RBC and platelets
• May need to activate CODE OB
MTP: Activation
• Assemble team
– Designate MTP lead, assistants (RN, RRT)
– Call locating if additional resources are necessary
Anaesthesia, porter, perfusionist, etc.
If your area has a porter or CA and he/she is available to assist, do not call
portering services
– Outside of ED/OR/ICU, call CCRT or Code Blue
MTP: Initial Patient Management
• Secure airway and provide oxygen
• Obtain appropriate vascular access
– 2xG14-16 i.v. or central line
• Start IV fluids
– Note: only 0.9% NaCl solution is compatible with
blood products
• Set up rapid infuser/blood warmer
• Administer tranexamic acid if appropriate
• Keep core temperature >35C
• Place patient on continuous monitoring
MTP: Initial Patient Management
• For information on administration of
tranexamic acid in trauma, refer to Protocol
for intravenous administration of tranexamic
acid (Cyclokapron) during trauma
resuscitation (Pharmacy)
MTP: Initial Laboratory Investigations
• Send off laboratory investigations:
Group and screen (2 pink top tubes)
CBC (1 lavender top tube)
INR, aPTT, Fibrinogen (1 blue top tube)
Electrolytes, ionized calcium, creatinine (2 yellow top
– Lactate (1 grey top tube)
– VBG (syringe)
– Place labeled specimens into a red plastic STAT bag and
deliver to the labs as soon as possible
MTP: Patient Monitoring
• Clinical
– BP, HR, SatO2, RR, temperature
– Input and output
• Laboratory
– Send CBC, INR, fibrinogen every 1 h
– ABG/VBG every 25-30 min
– Creatinine/Magnesium/Lactate every 4h
MTP: Transfusion
• Follow the policy on Administration of Blood
Products (CPPS)
• Use blood warmer for RBC and plasma
• Refer to Use of rapid infusion and blood warming devices for infusion
of blood products and resuscitating fluids (CPPS)
• Do not transfuse platelets and cryoprecipitate through a blood
• RBC and plasma will be transported and stored in a
cooler during MTP
– Platelets and cryoprecipitate should be kept at room temperature;
do NOT place in the cooler
MTP: Transfusion of RBC
• RBC must be ABO compatible and crossmatch
• Following initiation of MTP, red blood cells (RBC)
are immediately available for pick-up
– If patient’s compatibility testing (group & screen,
crossmatch) has not been completed, you will receive
uncrossmatched RBC
– If patient has RBC already crossmatched, you will
receive crossmatch compatible RBC
MTP: Transfusion of RBC
• Notes:
– For a new patient, it will take at least 45 minutes to obtain
crossmatch compatible RBC from the time of specimen
arrival in TM
– For a patient with an in-date group and screen (with no
crossmatched units available), time to compatible RBC will
depend on whether the patient has RBC antibodies (5 min
to few hours)
– Patient will be switched to crossmatch compatible RBC as
soon as they are available
Time to Availability of RBC
RBC Product
Turn-Around Time
Uncrossmatched blood <5 minutes
(O Rh pos or O Rh
O Rh neg reserved for females of
childbearing age
Only in emergencies (when
risk of delaying
transfusion is higher than
the risk of acute
uncrossmatched RBCs
10 minutes (to perform group)
As above; superior,
because matching for ABO
and RhD preserves O-Neg
Crossmatched RBCs
45 minutes to hrs (to perform
group and screen, antibody
investigation if appropriate,
Preferred choice, as the
serologically cleared
product is the safest
product available
MTP: Three approaches to transfusion
• Transfusion management of a massively
bleeding patient may be:
– Lab-based
– Ratio-based (1:1 frozen plasma to RBC)
– Point-of-care testing driven
– Our protocol utilizes ratio-based resuscitation to
guide plasma transfusion and lab-based approach
to guide transfusion of platelets and
MTP: Transfusion of Plasma
• Plasma
– Administered during MTP at a 1:1 ratio
RBC to plasma:
• 1st cooler: 4 units
• 2nd and subsequent coolers: 4 units
– Must be ABO compatible
– Thawing plasma takes about 20 minutes
• Upon initiation of MTP, plasma should be ready in 20
– If patient blood group is not available, AB
plasma will be issued
• Patient will be switched to group specific plasma
once patient’s blood group has been determined
MTP: Transfusion of Platelets
• Platelets
– During MTP, administer if platelet count is <100
for CNS/spinal cord bleeding or traumatic brain
injury; <50 for all others OR at any count if platelet
dysfunction is suspected (ex. post-bypass)
– Dose is “1 adult dose”
– Available immediately
– Note: For patients with PPH, platelets
will be offered with the 1st cooler
MTP: Transfusion of Cryoprecipitate
• Cryoprecipitate
– During MTP, administer if fibrinogen level is
– Dose is 10 units
– Must be ABO compatible
– Thawing and pooling cryoprecipitate takes 30
– Note: For patients with PPH, cryoprecipitate
will be offered with the 1st cooler
MTP: What is in the shipment?
• 1st shipment
– Cooler with 6 units of RBC
• 4 unit of plasma will be issued separately in the next 20
– For PPH OR upon request
• 1 adult dose of platelets (available immediately)
• 10 units of cryoprecipitate (available in 20 minutes)
• 2nd shipment and subsequent shipments
– Cooler with 4 units of RBC, 4 units of plasma
– Will be prepared every 30 minutes
• Platelets and cryoprecipitate must be ordered as per
clinical situation and laboratory results
– These will be issued in a clear plastic bag
MTP: Transfusion Goals
The following should be used as a guideline only and not replace
clinical judgment
• Transfuse RBC to maintain Hgb>80g/L
• Transfuse plasma at a 1:1 to 1:2 RBC to plasma ratio or
maintain INR<1.5 and/or aPTT<1.5x upper limit of normal
• Transfuse cryoprecipitate to maintain Fibrinogen >1.5 g/L
• Transfuse platelets to maintain platelet count of 100x109/L for
CNS/spinal cord bleeding or traumatic brain injury; platelet
count for 50x109/L for all other bleeding patients
– Note: If platelet dysfunction is suspected, transfuse
platelets regardless of platelet count
MTP: Supportive measures
The principal aim is to achieve either surgical or medical
• Other potentially useful interventions:
Maintain normothermia
Replace calcium
Consider cell salvage
Consider tranexamic acid (TXA): 1 g loading dose over 10
minutes followed by 1g over 8 hours
– Use of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is not recommended
in the management of MT
MTP: Termination
•Termination criteria
–bleeding is controlled or patient is deceased
–Note: Re-assess need for ongoing MTP every 30 minutes; if
transfusion requirements have decreased, consider
terminating MTP and provide transfusions as necessary
• Inform TM (ext 5084) that MTP has been terminated
•Return MTP cooler(s) and any untransfused blood
products as soon as possible to avoid wastage
MTP: Common errors
Consistently identified weaknesses during MTP:
• Poor planning
• Poor communication
• Delay in activation of MTP
• Failure to monitor laboratory parameters during MTP
• Failure to monitor for and manage hypothermia
• Failure to administer blood products as per MTP
• Failure to administer cryoprecipitate
• Delay in termination of MTP
MTP: Adverse Events
• Hypothermia
• Citrate toxicity
• Volume overload, abdominal compartment
• Transfusion Reactions
– Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (ex. ABO
incompatible transfusion due to clerical error)
– Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)
– Transfusion associated cardiac overload (TACO)
– Major allergic reaction
Concluding Remarks
• Be prepared – know the protocol
• Practice - participate in mock MTP
• During MTP, communicate with all members
of the team, including those in TM
• Re-assess need for ongoing MTP frequently
• Return coolers and untransfused products
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