Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus

ECOSEA project
WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2
Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
Maggio 2014
WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2
Dott. Thomas Galvan
Dott. Raoul Lazzarini
Dott.ssa Roberta Rocco
Dott. Alessandro Vendramini
Mollusks are a very important resource for Italian fishery, interesting all the Italian fishery harbours.
The latest positive transformations of national fishery had as principal actors the mollusks, in particular the
bivalves, such as Adriatic clams (Chamelea gallina), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and Manila clams
(Tapes philippinarum).
More specifically C. gallina was the protagonist of a cultural revolution about the resource manage,
because it was the first (in 1995) to be ruled with the creation of Management Consortia (Co.Ge.Vo.) that
govern any fishery company that catch clams, regulating fishery periods, fishery areas, fishery timing, daily
quota of clams, etc. Once mussels were bred principally inside lagoon on fixed wood structures where the
growout socks were hanged. In 90’s, with the constant development of long line mussel culture, inside the
Venice lagoon the fixed structures for mussels and the production itself decreased moving to 20.000 t to
2.000-2.500 t.
Manila clam, furthermore, was the protagonist of a real revolution inside the lagoon fishery activities,
changing uses, costumes and economy of all local fishery companies, meanwhile the earnings obtained
with clam grew exponentially in 90’s after the experimental seed of Manila clam, since this species was
called as lagoon black gold, but from the middle of 00’s up to now the Manila clam production heavily
Analyzing the particular biology, the high commercial value, the market demand and the actual negative
productive trend, the aim of this restocking activity was focused on great Mediterranean scallop (Pecten
The local Technical-scientific Adriatic Advisory Board addressed this Veneto’s restocking activity to great
Mediterranean scallop, analysing the importance of a production restarting in north Adriatic, right
environmental to develop this bivalve. From 80’s up to these days the production significantly reduced,
from 1.000-1.200 t/y to 60 t/y (data from Veneto Agricoltura - Osservatorio per la pesca, 2014), with a
heavily reduction already during first years of 90’s when the production was 200-400 t/y. On the next graph
there is the negative production trend of great Mediterranean scallop at ichthyic market of Chioggia from
1970 to 2012 (data from UniPD – Clodia Project), where it is clear that the production has a constant and
progressive decline.
ECOSEA project WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2 - Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
di Pecten
transitati production
al MIT Chioggia
– Pecten jacobaeus
nel periodo
Some researches sustain that the principal reason of this evident and important production decline of
scallops in Noth Adriatic is the high and without rules fishery, made just to satisfy the increasing markets
demands. The worst period for scallops was the beginning of 80’s when powerful ships with beam trawls
(3-5 for each ship) catch scallops over sandy bottoms without rules and slowly impoverishing natural banks.
Having regard to the fact that the great Mediterranean scallop is still a very important commercial and
economic resource, some activities for North Adriatic must be done to:
1) Increase the general resource availability with restocking;
2) Increase the general resource availability using protected areas;
3) Recreate an ecologic and economic sustainability of scallops in North Adriatic area.
The general objectives of this restocking activity are linked with a general coastal management area in
Veneto, maritime area interested by extensive changes on little coastal fishery and with heavy
infrastructural works that could influence ichthyic production. It is important to be able to economic
reactivate a historical fishery activity widely present in our marine harbours, with a special focus on
ECOSEA project WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2 - Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
ecologic aspect, using some management actions that allow to reposition and integrate some fish
companies affected by new UE laws and to alleviate the fishery pressure on common market species.
Considering that this is a much desire specie the aim of project is to create some rules for an active
restocking in protected areas (marine SIC, ZTB, ATM, etc.), linking with all stakeholders that used these
The specific objectives are:
To restock marine protected areas with great Mediterranean scallops of different sizes (juveniles
and adults) captured in North Adriatic areas with high density.
To create new natural banks of scallops for a continuous restocking in North Adriatic.
To create some best-practice useful to be expected in other areas suitable to improve on largescale this activity.
In this years the short time effects of UE fishery policy are negative and the socioeconomic and
environmental impact of impoverishment of ichthyic stocks in North Adriatic are really dangerous, this
project proposes and develops new management strategies with a direct awareness of fishermen. With this
project new ideas for scallop management should be studied, specie with a high market request and
consolidated scientific bases to farm in controlled environmental.
The restocking areas, according to the indications of AAB (Fano 03-04-2014), should be in protected zones
(no fishing) and with a depth of more 20 m to avoid the possibility of summer anoxia. Two areas are
selected for this activity, one in front of Jesolo-Cortellazzo and another one in front of Chioggia and both
around the “tegnùe”. Tegnùe are biogenic carbonate rocks built by marine organisms. They initially grow on
existing hard bottoms formed by cemented sand. They have developed into natural reefs over the last 34.000 years. They differ from tropical coral reefs because here the main builder organisms are not corals
but calcareous red algae, called "Corallines". Tegnùe are found in the northern Adriatic Sea at depths of
between 15 and 40 meters. Their dimensions vary from small isolated blocks to outcrops hundreds of
meters wide. There are remarkable sponges, ascidians and sea anemones. Brittle stars and crustaceans,
from the small hermit crabs to the majestic lobsters, populate the rocks. Among the fishes it is possible to
ECOSEA project WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2 - Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
find blennies, damselfish, brown combers, scorpionfish, conger and brown meagre. It is often possible to
observe schools of cod that swim around the rocks.
Fishermen generally avoid these areas but they well know that these bottoms are teeming with fish.
The largest and most well-known outcrops are located out of Chioggia. In this area at the end of 90’s
(Maffei, M., Prioli G., Piva P., Giovanardi O., 1997, Prove di allevamento di capasanta (Pecten jacobaeus) su
strutture off-shore in Adriatico. Rel. Finale ICRAM-Ecomar, 25 pp.) an experimental scallop farm was
attempted since traditional long-line structures seem not obtain good results.
The first area was inside the “tegnue” along the coast of Jesolo-Cortellazzo with a depth of more than 20 m.
The exactly area will be recognized according to fishermen and divers experience that will realize the
The SCI IT 3250047 (figure below) has a fully extension of 2.656 ha and it is localized in in the sea in front of
Chioggia and Pellestrina coast. It is possible to localize some rocky outcrops with a big extension and a good
The area used for this experimentation (Area 3) is marked in the figure down with an extension of 135 ha.
SCI IT3250047 “Tegnùe di Chioggia” (Regione Veneto – Rete Natura 2000)
The activities will include a first characterization of restocking areas to define the de facto state before the
restocking actions; then the great Mediterranean scallops (Pecten jacobaeus) will seed with different
ECOSEA project WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2 - Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
dimensional organisms to create an homogenous population and to allow an evaluation of results to
choose the better dimensional class for the restocking activities.
After the seeding, with a specific timing it will monitor the progression of experimentation for an estimate
of death rate, ability to adapt, recruitment etc.
The starting point of Pecten jacobaeus restocking activity is in summer 2014 with environmental
characterization and subsequently (in autumn 2014) the seeding activities (young and adult scallops). The
periodical monitoring in these seeding areas will extend until the end of 2015.
The restocking of WP4 projects regard two different activities, the first for cuttlefish and the second for
great Mediterranean scallops.
In the table below the economic subdivision for all the activities of WP4 are reported.
Restocking activity n. 1
Cuttlefish restocking
Restocking activity n. 2
Great Mediterranean scallop restocking
Percentage distribution of the budget between the two restocking activities provided in Veneto (WP4)
Inside the scallop restocking activity the service and equipment subdivision is reported in this table:
Percentage allocation of investment in equipment and services for “Restocking activity n. 2 –
Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
% of incidence of the
Adult juveniles
Jesolo tegnue
Chioggia tegnue
Activity n. 2 – Scallops restocking: breakdown of equipment and services
ECOSEA project WP 4.2 - Restocking Activity n. 2 - Restocking Activity of Pecten jacobaeus (great Mediterranean scallop)
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