Ecological Relationships

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Ecological
Relationships
Reflection
question using
this picture:
What are some
components
within an
ecosystem?
How is an
ecosystem
different than a
community?
What is an ecosystem?
– a community and its abiotic factors
What is a community?
What is a population?
• a group of
organisms of the
same species
that live in the
same area
• a group of populations
that are living and
interacting with one
another. They are
interdependent
(depend on one
another)
Communities are the building blocks of
ecosystems
Do you remember what an
abiotic factor is?
non-living
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Within Communities
Biodiversity = the
number of species in an
ecosystem
Crucial to
ecosystem
productivity
Territory = space
claimed by an
individual organism
Required by
all living
things
Ecological Equilibrium =
state of “balance” in an
ecosystem
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/about/environment/faqs/biodiversity.jpg
Ecological Relationships
- an Ecological relationship is a relationship between animals and their
habitat
The role in
their habitat
Ex: Fox
helps control
small animal
populations.
http://www.cs.umbc.edu/courses/undergraduate/201/fall06/projects/p1/fox-rabbit.jpg
• NICHE – an organism’s
“role” in an ecosystem
(job)
• NICHE DIVERSITY –
Number of niches in an
ecosystem; often
determined by abiotic
factors
A niche is the
sum of all
activities and
relationships
a species has
while
obtaining and
using
resources
needed to
survive and
reproduce
1. Competition:
• When species or
individuals “fight” for
the same resources.
– E.g., Food, shelter….
• KEYSTONE
PREDATOR/SPECIES -
A predator that
causes a large
increase in diversity
of its habitat.
The “fight” may be indirect
… individuals may never
directly contact each other.
Losing a keystone
species usually
disrupts many
ecological
relationships.
http://www.butler.edu/herbarium/prairie/prairie42004.jpg
Two species with
similar needs for
same limited
resources cannot
coexist.
2. Feeding Relationships
http://images.inmagine.com/168nwm/creata
s/cr15169/cr15169065.jpg
http://www.smilinglizard.com/1a291aa0.jpg
• A primary consumer
feeds on a producer.
A fruit bat eating
a papaya
Herbivory:
A woodchuck eating
wild clover
http://www.citypaper.net/blogs/clog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/06/close-up-bald-eagle-eating.jpg
Predation: actively
hunting your food
source (carnivory)
A lion eating zebra.
An eagle eating halibut.
• A consumer
feeds on another
consumer.
http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/2006/3/IMAGES/lion_zebra.jpg
2. Feeding Relationships
• A long-term relationship where two
species live closely together and at
least one benefits directly from the
relationship.
http://www.floridastateparks.org/maclaygardens/images/wallpaper/1024-PL-MAC-Symbiosis-MarkFerrulo.jpg
3. Symbiosis:
Mutualism:
• Both organisms benefit from the
relationship.
• Win-Win situation!
http://tumi-educational-resources.org/Educational%20%20Videos.htm
Commensalism
• One organism
benefits, the other
one is unaffected.
• Win-Neutral
relationship
Parasitism
• One organism benefits, the other one
is harmed!
• Win-Lose relationship
• Parasites rarely kill their hosts…it
would require them to get another
one!
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