Ecological Relationships Reflection question using this picture: What are some components within an ecosystem? How is an ecosystem different than a community? What is an ecosystem? – a community and its abiotic factors What is a community? What is a population? • a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area • a group of populations that are living and interacting with one another. They are interdependent (depend on one another) Communities are the building blocks of ecosystems Do you remember what an abiotic factor is? non-living http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://images.tut orvista.com/content/feed/tvcs/bioticabiotic_0.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.tutorvista.com/biolog y/abiotic-factors-of-thetundra&h=450&w=501&sz=19&tbnid=SYQkkfMdj84Qx M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=100&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dabiotic %2Bfactors%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q =abiotic+factors&usg=__3qTZObCF00i3HUSdOjDKuw X5Pi4=&docid=nuQbIbk8ywn28M&hl=en&sa=X&ei=c10 yUKCdBIS9ywGN7YCgCA&sqi=2&ved=0CGEQ9QEwB g&dur=501 Within Communities Biodiversity = the number of species in an ecosystem Crucial to ecosystem productivity Territory = space claimed by an individual organism Required by all living things Ecological Equilibrium = state of “balance” in an ecosystem http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/about/environment/faqs/biodiversity.jpg Ecological Relationships - an Ecological relationship is a relationship between animals and their habitat The role in their habitat Ex: Fox helps control small animal populations. http://www.cs.umbc.edu/courses/undergraduate/201/fall06/projects/p1/fox-rabbit.jpg • NICHE – an organism’s “role” in an ecosystem (job) • NICHE DIVERSITY – Number of niches in an ecosystem; often determined by abiotic factors A niche is the sum of all activities and relationships a species has while obtaining and using resources needed to survive and reproduce 1. Competition: • When species or individuals “fight” for the same resources. – E.g., Food, shelter…. • KEYSTONE PREDATOR/SPECIES - A predator that causes a large increase in diversity of its habitat. The “fight” may be indirect … individuals may never directly contact each other. Losing a keystone species usually disrupts many ecological relationships. http://www.butler.edu/herbarium/prairie/prairie42004.jpg Two species with similar needs for same limited resources cannot coexist. 2. Feeding Relationships http://images.inmagine.com/168nwm/creata s/cr15169/cr15169065.jpg http://www.smilinglizard.com/1a291aa0.jpg • A primary consumer feeds on a producer. A fruit bat eating a papaya Herbivory: A woodchuck eating wild clover http://www.citypaper.net/blogs/clog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/06/close-up-bald-eagle-eating.jpg Predation: actively hunting your food source (carnivory) A lion eating zebra. An eagle eating halibut. • A consumer feeds on another consumer. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/2006/3/IMAGES/lion_zebra.jpg 2. Feeding Relationships • A long-term relationship where two species live closely together and at least one benefits directly from the relationship. http://www.floridastateparks.org/maclaygardens/images/wallpaper/1024-PL-MAC-Symbiosis-MarkFerrulo.jpg 3. Symbiosis: Mutualism: • Both organisms benefit from the relationship. • Win-Win situation! http://tumi-educational-resources.org/Educational%20%20Videos.htm Commensalism • One organism benefits, the other one is unaffected. • Win-Neutral relationship Parasitism • One organism benefits, the other one is harmed! • Win-Lose relationship • Parasites rarely kill their hosts…it would require them to get another one!