Adaptation

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KS4 Biology
Adaptation
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Contents
Adaptation
What is an adaptation?
Adaptations for a cold climate
Adaptations for a dry climate
Other adaptations
Adaptation activities
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Different types of habitat
In general, there are three major habitat types in the world.
land habitats
freshwater habitats
marine habitats
How do organisms survive in such different habitats?
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What is an adaptation?
A habitat is only populated by organisms that are
adapted to survive there.
Adaptations are special features or behaviours that
make an organism particularly suited to its environment.
Adaptations are a part of the evolutionary process.
Why is it important that living things are adapted to their
environment?
Adaptations increase an organism’s chance of survival
and so increase its chance of reproducing.
Why is reproduction so important for all living species?
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Matching organisms to their habitat
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Contents
Adaptation
What is an adaptation?
Adaptations for a cold climate
Adaptations for a dry climate
Other adaptations
Adaptation activities
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How are polar bears adapted?
How are polar bears adapted to life in an extremely cold
climate?
Small ears help to reduce
heat loss.
Thick fur and a thick
layer of body fat insulate
from the cold.
White fur acts as
camouflage.
Large feet spread the
body’s weight. The wide
paws act as good paddles
and snow shoes.
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How are polar bears adapted?
Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope
with conditions in the harsh polar environment are:
Eyes have brown irises
to reduce the glare from
sunlight reflection.
Greasy fur repels water
and keeps the bear dry.
Skin is actually black
to absorb any heat
transmitted through
the hairs.
Body surface area is
small compared to volume
to reduce heat loss.
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Contents
Adaptation
What is an adaptation?
Adaptations for a cold climate
Adaptations for a dry climate
Other adaptations
Adaptation activities
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Curious camel facts
Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know that…
…camels have three
stomachs.
...some camels live to
over 40 years old.
…some Bactrian camels
can transport 450 kg.
…archaeological finds
show that they originated
in North America.
…Somalia is home to
over 6 million camels!
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How is a camel adapted?
How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
Brown coat for camouflage.
Fat is stored in the hump.
There is no other body fat
to prevent overheating.
Loses little water through
sweating or urine.
Long, thin legs mean the
body surface area is large
compared to volume
to increase heat loss.
Wide feet for spreading
body weight over soft
shifting sand.
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How is a camel adapted?
Other adaptations that camels have evolved to cope
with conditions in the harsh desert environment are:
Nostrils can close
when needed to
protect the camel
in sandstorms.
Ears are lined with
fur to prevent sand
and dust from
getting in.
A very varied diet,
ranging from grass
and bark to thorns
and bones, is eaten.
Long eyelashes
protect the eyes
from sand and
dust.
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How is a cactus adapted?
How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
Thick, waxy surface
to reduce water loss.
Leaves are narrow spines
that reduce water loss and
protect from predators.
Stores water in fleshy stem.
Plant surface area is
small compared to volume
to reduce water loss.
Some have shallow,
spreading roots for
surface water, others
have deep roots.
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How is a kangaroo rat adapted?
A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats.
How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment?
Brown fur for camouflage
Nostrils can closed
and only goes out at night
when needed to
when it is much cooler.
protect the camel
Most water comes from
in sandstorms.
its diet of seeds.
Does not sweat, or pant,
to reduce water loss.
A very varied diet
ranging from grass
and bark to thorns
and bones.
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Large back feet to escape
from predators allow it
to hop 2 metres at a time!
Long tail for balance
when hopping.
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Contents
Adaptation
What is an adaptation?
Adaptations for a cold climate
Adaptations for a dry climate
Other adaptations
Adaptation activities
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Aquatic adaptations
How is this barracuda adapted to an aquatic environment?
Streamlined shape
to reduce friction
when moving
through water.
Silver colouring
allows the fish
to be camouflaged.
Gills have a large
surface area so that
oxygen can be
extracted from the
surrounding water.
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Unusual plant adaptations
Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is
little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning
adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need.
Pitcher plants have a large
hollow filled with fluid that
traps insects or other small
organisms that may fall in.
Hairs on the slippery inside
of the plant are angled down
to ensure that the victim
cannot escape!
The plant digests its victims
to absorb the nitrates it needs!
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Contents
Adaptation
What is an adaptation?
Adaptations for a cold climate
Adaptations for a dry climate
Other adaptations
Adaptation activities
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True or false?
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Matching adaptations
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Multiple-choice quiz
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