chapter 7 - classification of living things

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CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING
THINGS
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• ABOUT HOW MANY LIVING THINGS EXIST ON
EARTH?
– 1.5 MILLION KNOWN ORGANISMS
– THOUSANDS MORE IDENTIFIED EACH YEAR
– ABOUT 10 MILLION DIFFERENT ORGANISMS
BELIEVED TO EXIST ON EARTH
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• WITH SO MANY
DIFFERENT LIVING
THINGS, IT IS ESSENTIAL
FOR SCIENTISTS TO
ORGANIZE THEM TO
MAKE IT EASIER TO
SHARE, AND STUDY,
INFORMATION ABOUT
LIVING THINGS
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• THE BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT DEALS WITH
CLASSIFICATION (GROUPING) AND NAMING
LIVING THINGS IS CALLED…
• TAXONOMY
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• WHY ORGANIZE??
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• EARLY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• MODERN
CLASSIFICATION
SYSTEM BASED UPON
THE WORK OF CAROLUS
LINNAEUS
• ISN’T HE A HOTTIE?!?!?
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• IF YOU WERE TO GROUP THINGS TOGETHER,
WHAT WOULD YOU USE?
• LINNAEUS GROUPED THINGS BASED ON
PHYSICAL(STRUCTURAL) SIMILARITY
• DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GROUPS WERE
CREATED TO DEMONSTRATE VARIOUS LEVELS
OF SIMILARITY
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• TAXONOMIC
CATEGORIES
– KINGS
PLAY
CHESS
ON
FLAT
GLASS
SQUARES
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• A BONUS OF THIS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IS
THAT IT LED TO A SIMPLE METHOD FOR
NOMENCLATURE = “NAMING SYSTEM”
• BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
– TWO NAME NAMING SYSTEM
– TWO NAMES COME FROM THE GENUS AND
SPECIES GROUPS OF CLASSIFICATION
– SCIENTIFIC NAME
• WHY IS THIS SO IMPORTANT??
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• WHAT MAKES LIVING THINGS THE SAME
SPECIES?
– SPECIES
• A POPULATION OF ORGANISMS THAT IS ABLE TO
REPRODUCE WITH EACH OTHER AND PRODUCE FERTILE
OFFSPRING
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• MODERN TAXONOMICAL
PRINCIPLES
– STRUCTURAL
INFORMATION
– BIOCHEMICAL
INFORMATION
– CYTOLOGICAL
INFORMATION
– EMBRYOLOGICAL
INFORMATION
– BEHAVIORAL
INFORMATION
– FOSSIL INFORMATION
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• MAJOR TAXONOMICAL GROUPS
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• KINGDOM – MONERA
– PROKARYOTES
– ARCHAEBACTERIA
VS.
EUBACTERIA
• KINGDOM – PROTISTA
–
–
–
–
EUKARYOTE
AMEBA
PARAMECIUM
EUGLENA
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• KINGDOM – FUNGI
– EUKARYOTES
– HETEROTROPH
– CELL WALL
• KINGDOM – PLANTS
– EUKARYOTES
– AUTOTROPH
– CELL WALL
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• KINGDOM – ANIMALS
– EUKARYOTES
– HETEROTROPH
– REPRESENTATIVE
ORGANISMS
•
•
•
•
HYDRA
EARTHWORM
GRASSHOPPER
HUMAN
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• WITH GROUPS
MADE,
SCIENTISTS
USE
TAXONOMIC
KEYS TO
CLASSIFY
ORGANISMS
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• CLASSIFICATION /
GROUPING ALLOWS
US TO ORGANIZE
HOW WE STUDY
BIOLOGY
• LIFE’S
HIERARCHY
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
• LIFE’S HIERARCHY
GIVES US A PLACE
TO START
DISCUSSING
THE SPECIFICS
OF HOW LIFE
WORKS…
SO LET’S GET TO IT!!!
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