characteristics and some contemporary challenges

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The voluntary sector in the UK: characteristics
and some contemporary challenges
John Mohan
Professor of Social Policy and Co-Director, Third
Sector Research Centre,
University of Birmingham
[email protected]
Some comments on the strengths and limitations of
voluntary action
• “charity always does too much or too little: it lavishes its
bounty in one place, and leaves people to starve in
another” (John Stuart Mill, 1848)
• "it took the first half of the 20th century for the country to
recognise that charities could not provide the services that
a modern society needs; and the second half to realise that
the state by itself could not do so either. Both charities and
state were needed.” (Malcolm Dean, The Guardian,
October 2013)
• “the map of social action in Britain is a vibrant kaleidoscope
of institutions and organisations, competing and
combining, developing effective local responses to local
needs” (David Cameron, 2006)
Popularity of charitable causes
Philanthropic particularism: proportion of charities
reporting legacy income, by ICNPO
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Series1
Principal income sources, UK charities
Charity deserts? Ratio of
charitable organisations to
population, England, 2010
Or, as William Gibson said: “The future
is out there, it’s just not evenly
distributed”
Charities / 1000 pop
0.81 - 1.37
1.38 - 1.77
1.78 - 2.20
2.24 - 3.23
3.24 - 14.06
0.81 - 1.48
Charities / 1000
1.49 - 1.97
1.98 - 2.89
2.89 - 14.1
-6
48
76
15
9
77
-1
59
18
9
90
7
11
91
9
-1
19
07
8
-9
8
47
0
Distribution of charitable
resources: charitypopulation ratios crossclassified with median
charity incomes, 2010
53
Median charity expenditure
Charity begins at home? Distribution of organisations
working at the neighbourhood scale, by IMD
No public income
Public income
1
.8
.6
.4
.2
0
0-5
5-10
10-15
15-20
20-25
25-30
30-35
35-40
Deprivation [score]
40-45
45-50
50-55
55+
Public Funding
Proportion of voluntary organisations receiving public
funding
Local variation in volunteering: Place Surveys, 2008
Local variations in voluntary action: volunteering and
unemployment in census output areas, N Ireland
Components of civic core: shares of volunteering,
participation and giving to charity
Distribution of core and non-core groups by
IMD
Distribution of core and non-core groups by IMD
18
16
14
% of group
12
10
Civic core
Non-core but engaged
Not engaged
8
6
4
2
0
IMD deciles
Charity dates of establishment, 1900-
www.shaw-trust.org.uk
Proportion of charities experiencing year-on-year declines in
income
Any decline in income
At least 25% decline
0.70
0.60
Proportion of organisations
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Years compared
Median growth of income, 1998-2008, by initial
(1998) income
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