The Holocaust

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Objectives
Content: Label the major events of
the Holocaust on a timeline.
Learning: List the causes of the
Holocaust and explain what ended it.
Holocaust
In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power in
Germany.
Nuremberg Laws were passed barring Jews from
holding many jobs. The Nazis encouraged
boycotts of Jewish owned shops and businesses.
Nazi boycott
signs:
“Germans defend
yourself against
Jewish atrocity
propaganda, buy
only at German
shops.”
Concentration camps opened to
concentrate those against the
government
The Nazis began burning books written by Jews.
Kristallnacht, the “Night of Broken Glass” in 1938,
marked the actual beginning of the Holocaust. 1000
synagogues were set on fire.
The Great Synagogue on Tlomackie Street.
Before . ..
and after the Night of Broken Glass.
Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 marked the
beginning of World War II.
A train carrying German troops to Poland says
“We are going to Poland to thrash the Jews.”
German soldiers enjoyed the public
humiliation of Polish Jews.
German soldiers in Poland teach two Jewish
men how to give the Nazi salute correctly.
Jews were
segregated from
the rest of society.
The sign says,
“Jews are
forbidden to walk
on this side of the
street.”
Jews were forced to wear arm badges,
or badges with the Star of David.
Jewish stores also had to be marked with the
Star of David.
Jews could only ride in certain areas of the
streetcar.
Hitler ordered all Jews to be removed to ghettoes
(Warsaw Ghetto). They could bring only what
they could carry.
The ghettoes were closed off from the rest of
the city.
A ghetto ration card entitles
the holder to 300 calories a day.
Jews had to chop furniture
to use as fuel in the ghetto.
A typical room in a ghetto.
Concentration and Work Camps - Intent to
exterminate Jews and others by labor and
service to German war effort
1941- 1942
The Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads.
They killed approximately 1,500,000 Jews.
In 1942, the Nazis opened concentration
camps to carry out the “Final Solution.”
Concentration Camps
At Auschwitz-Birkenau, one million Jews
and one million non-Jews were killed.
A warehouse full of shoes and clothing
confiscated from concentration camp prisoners.
A crate full of rings confiscated from
prisoners.
The inside of a barracks at a concentration
camp.
A prisoner
forced to stand
for hours as
punishment.
Crematoria ovens in a concentration camp.
Containers of
Zyklon B (poison
gas pellets).
The last words of inmates at a death camp
are carved into these walls.
By late 1943, the
Germans began
dismantling
the death camps to
cover up their
crimes. In 1945,
they sent prisoners
walking to central
Germany.
As Allied troops entered the Nazi-occupied
areas, concentration camp survivors were
rescued and liberated.
Young and old
survivors cheered
the approaching
Allied troops.
Slave laborers at one concentration camp
survived in spite of the overcrowding, lack
of food, hard labor and psychological
torture.
After the war, Allied forces forced German
civilians to witness the atrocities that had
occurred in their own backyards.
In 1945 -1946 the Germans were tried at
the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. This
brought 22 Nazi officials to court.
Holocaust
What Caused It?
Anti-Semitism –
discrimination
against Jews
and Aryan
superiority
What Was It?
Systematic attempt to rid Europe of all
undesirables, including: Jews,
Gypsies, homosexuals, physically
and mentally handicapped
Tactics used by the Nazis
Boycott of Jewish
stores
Threats
Segregation
Imprisonment and
killing of Jews and
others in
concentration camps
and death camps
How Did It End?
Jews and others in the
concentration camps were
liberated by the Allied
Forces.
Germans were held
responsible for actions at
Nuremberg Trials after
the war.
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