https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIaxmlVrFhE What is a metropolis? It is a very large city (urban area). It provides lots of activities and services. Home to many head offices (The main office of a company). It has greater economic and decision-making power than other cities. Densely populated (lots of people living in one area). 1. Downtown core 2. Residential neighbourhoods 3. Public parks 4. Public squares 5. Industrial parks 6. Interchanges 7. Suburbs (Residential areas around a major city) http://www.urbanphoto.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/plex07.jpg 8. Lots of tall office buildings and high-rise apartments/condos. Metropolises have recognizable features: Metropolises have: Historical and modern landmarks Landmarks can be natural or man-made. Ex. of man-made: Schwartz’s Deli). Mount-Royal and the St. Lawrence River are physical features. Metropolises all around the world: 8 out of 10 metropolises with the highest population are in developing nations (poor). Developing Nation: A country with: a low standard of living severe poverty low income and education levels high birth rate bad economy, little to no technology. poorly built Infrastructure (ex: roads, bridges) Developing nations: most countries in Africa, Asia (except Japan), Latin America, and Oceania (except Australia and New Zealand) Developed or Industrialized Nation: A country with a high standard of living high income and education levels lower birth rate (birth control etc.) well-developed roads, bridges, houses etc. Good economy Developed nations: Canada, U.S.A, France, England, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand etc. Northern vs. Southern Hemispheres: Most countries in the Northern Hemisphere are developed - wealthy! Most countries in the Southern Hemisphere are developing countries – really poor! Powerful metropolises: Economically powerful metropolises are found in the United States, Western Europe and Asia. Megalopolis: It is a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas. These cities form the heart of economic and global power – they run the world! Ex. of megalopolises in USA : Boston-New York- Washington D.C. Chicago-Detroit-Pittsburgh San Francisco-Los Angeles-San Diego The Northeast megalopolis (also Boston-Washington Corridor or Bos-Wash Corridor) BosWash contains a reported population of 44 million, or 16% of the population of the United States, probably two or more world cities, and four of the world's fifty largest metropolitan areas — Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington — as well as the New York Stock Exchange, the White House and US Capitol, the UN Headquarters, the headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, the New York Times and the Washington Post, as well as six of top ten US universities Comparing and Contrasting 2 Metropolises What is it? The previous image is the City of the Dead, located in Cairo, Egypt. The City of the Dead is a massive cemetery, which extends about 6km. Due to overcrowding in Cairo people have had to move into the cemetery. In Cairo, it is considered an honour to live among one’s deceased relatives. Montreal at a Glance Official language is French Population is approximately 3.8 million in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (2011) Located along the St. Lawrence River. Lies in the center of a large, fertile plain left by the Champlain sea (13,000-10,000 yrs ago). Surrounded by a river system (St. Lawrence Seaway). Cultural features: Mount Royal, Olympic Stadium, etc. Montreal: Growth Population of Mtl continues to increase mostly due to immigration. Today, immigrants make up more than 30% of the population, making Mtl a multiethnic city. MMA (Mtl Metropolitan Area) continues to expand as more and more people move off-island. Why? Running out of space. Montreal Metropolitan Area URBAN SPRAWL in the Montreal Metropolitan Area http://spacingmontreal.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/AMT-od-study-territory-2010.jpg Cairo at a Glance Official language is Arabic Population is +/- 15 million The city of Cairo is located on both sides of the Nile River. Land on both sides of Nile R. is fertile. Little precipitation (Desert climate). Cultural features: Pyramids of Giza & the great Sphinx. Cairo: Growth Its population is increasing due to migration from farming areas to the city. It has very little immigration (not multi-ethnic). Cairo’s city limits continue to grow due to rapid growth. Getting Around in Mtl It has always been a center for water transportation and travel, due to it’s unique location. Government has also built many canals and locks to ease the passage of larger ships into the St. Lawrence seaway. Montreal has an international called airport (Pierre Elliott Trudeau). http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Trudeau_Airport_1.jpg Due to the size of our Metropolitan Area, people use public transportation and cars to get around. Mtl has an well-developed metro, bus and commuter train system. However, most of us still use cars to get around. http://www.fixcas.com/news/2005/McInnis.jpg What do Montreal and Cairo have in common? Both cities have: busy shipping port Airports (travellers and cargo) Subway and bus system. Cairo̕s is NOT as welldeveloped. The majority of people in both cities use their cars to get around. Major challenges for metropolises: 1. Housing (affordability) 2. Waste Management (trash) 3. Transportation (traffic) 1. Housing: Finding a decent apartment is difficult for people with little money. Why? Too expensive, in disrepair or poorly situated. Government-subsidized housing* is available to lowincome families. *Apartments paid for in part by the government 1. Finding housing in Metropolises: What are the factors that determine the cost of rent: a. Income b. Number of children c. How close it is to a bus stop or metro station d. Neighborhood e. Environment (Living near a park is more expensive; living next to a highway/overpass would bring the value down) 2. Waste Management: Ever wonder what happens to all the waste from businesses and residents? Garbage trucks collect the trash. It is either deposited in landfills, incinerated, recycled or converted into compost. Where does garbage go? HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE is brought by truck to 1 of 5 landfills. Mtl Metropolitan area uses the Lachenaie landfill. RECYCLABLE MATERIALS is brought to a recycling plant. 3. Transportation The vast majority of commuters living in Montreal and Cairo use their own cars. What issues does this cause? Pollution b) Loss of green space c) Deterioration of infrastructure d) Traffic a) a. Pollution Acid Rain (contaminates water & harms fish). Leads to health problems (breathing). Air pollution (a.k.a. smog). b. Loss of Green Space Cities are growing in size and they are encroaching (intruding) on farms. c. Infrastructure is falling apart 100,000’s of commuters use our roads, bridges and public transit everyday. As a result, our roads, highways & bridges get damaged over time and must be repaired! Our municipal taxes help pay for these repairs. Beltway: It is a highway that encircles a city so that traffic does not have to pass through the center of it. Heavy trucks damage concrete and asphalt, slowdown traffic, and cause serious accidents. Montreal Metropolitan Area does not have beltway* for large-sized trucks. c. Traffic Potholes and huge cracks damage cars and slow down traffic. Traffic jams become more problematic as the population in the Metropolitan Area increases. More vehicles on our roads and ongoing road construction, due to aging infrastructure, cause traffic too. Although it's cheaper and faster to take public transit, most people living in MMA still use cars. Why? Means of Transportation Population going to work CAR PUBLIC TRANSIT WALKED BICYCLE TAXI MOTORCYCLE OTHER 70.4% 21.4% 5.7% 1.6% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% Lane closures due to road repairs and accidents cause traffic too. Some of the major highways, expressways and service roads in the M.M.A. need more lanes.