Cracking Energy Machines

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A Unique Way To Produce Energy ‘Turning Waste Into Energy’
Cracking Energy Machines Limited
Proposal for the conversion of Car Tyres
and other waste into energy
Technological Innovation for reconcilable development
Cracking Energy have created a patented process
Thermodynamic Cracking
The process of ‘thermodynamic cracking’ breaks down complex
organic molecules or hydrocarbons into simpler molecules by
breaking the carbon-carbon bonds; i.e. the breakdown of long chain
hydrocarbons to shorter ones.
The process is for materials that become viscous during processing
through heat and friction, such as plastics and tyres.
No harmful emissions are produced and the capital cost of the plants
support commercial operation.
Why are we unique?
Thermodynamic cracking is not Pyrolysis; cracking enables a
complete decomposition of plastics/rubber or RDF without any
emissions into the atmosphere (see Appendix I)
It is an extremely commercially viable solution that can take many
different materials as input to produce combustible hydro carbons
(see Appendix III)
We believe that no-one else has these particular technologies
How does it work?
Transforms synthetic resins and
rubber into combustible hydrocarbons
The plastics or rubber are degraded and fed
into a horizontal, dual cylindrical reactor which
Is devoid of oxygen.
Specially shaped rotors generate friction
Externally, heating bands provide additional
heat.
How does it work?.... continued
The high temperature generated, together with lack of oxygen
inside
the reactor, causes molecular cracking of the compound and the
formation of organic products made up of carbon molecular chains
bonded to other H2 molecules. These products are analogous to
natural hydrocarbons; in these conditions, the formation of both
dioxin and oxidation products is impossible.
Ouputs for different materials
TYPE OF
MATERIAL
Steel
Gas
Diesel fuel
Carbon
Ash
Automotive tyre
Rubber
20 %
15-20 %
25-55 %
25-40 %
0%
Heterogeneous
plastic materials
-
40-50 %
30-40 %
10-15 %
1-2 %
Other refuse derived fuels
-
30-50 %
20-30 %
10-20 %
5-10 %
6
The Environmental Problems
Automotive
Shredder
Residue (ASR)
Car Fluff
End of Life
Tyres (ELT)
•Rigid Plastics
7
End of Life Tyres
• The Facts
• Over 3 billion tyres are discarded worldwide each year
• In the European Union 250 million tyres are accumulated each year
expected to rise by 4% per annum (EU Statistics & Freedonia
Report)
• European Landfill Directive (199/31/EC) states that whole tyres
were banned from landfill in 2003 and shredded tyres in 2006
• Piled tyres may trap water, becoming breeding grounds for
mosquitoes and bacteria, or they can present a fire hazard
• Tyres not in controlled environments have adverse effect on local
water courses
• Stockpiled tyres can easily combust causing long term smouldering
generating toxic smoke that impacts on the environment and local
communities
• Tyres are very difficult to recycle profitably
• Governments and Industry are keen to find a commercially viable
solution
Environmental Directives
•
•
•
•
•
•
EU Member States will be
responsible for their own waste
recycling
U.K. Government reviewing what
can & cannot be landfilled
Plastic is under review with regard
to landfill
Land Fill Tax Escalator Extended to
2014
Increase by £8 per tonne per
annum to £80
Stricter Controls on level of End of
Vehicle Recycling
The Perfect Response
• The Landfill Directive represents a
step change in the way we
dispose of waste in the EU
• The CEML process is the perfect
answer to EU directives by
creating a “Virtuous Cycle”, a
closed loop recycling process
• An Environmentally Friendly
solution that reduces the Carbon
footprint effectively
End of Life Tyres
•End of Life Tyres UK
•In the UK we produce
46,000,000 used tyres per
annum
•Used tyres from cars equates
to 27,000,000 per annum
•The above totals balance to
100,000 tyres per day taken
off vehicles that have to be
recycled.
•In weight there is 450,000
tonnes to reprocess
•It is expected that Vehicle
ownership will increase
between 30 to 40 %.
Volume of tyres in tonnes
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxemburg
Netherlands
Portugal
Figures from Environment Agency
Spain
Sweden
UK
Source: ETRA – Introduction to Tyre Recycling 2004
10
In the European Union 55 million discarded tyres are recycled
every year!
How?
11
Tyre Recycling Options
Recycling
through
microwave
technology
Breaks the tyres into their original
components, the grade A steel can
be sold for recovery, the carbon and
oil are also reusable.
Recycling
through
grinding
Used in sports and play surfaces,
brake linings, landscaping mulch,
carpet underlay, shoe soles and
absorbents for waste.
Energy
Recovery
Tyres have a high calorific
value, about 20% higher than
coal, which on burning can be
harnessed to produce energy.
Recycling
through
cryogenic
fragmentati
on
Used for athletics tracks, carpet
underlay, playground surfaces
and rubberised asphalt for road
surfaces.
Energy
Recovery
through
pyrolysis
A self contained process which
avoids the release of large
volumes of combustion gases.
Recycling
through devulcanisation
Can be used to replace part of
the virgin material in automotive
and cycle tyres, conveyor belts
and footwear.
Energy Recovery through incineration in cement kilns
12
An Environment Friendly
Solution
•
•
•
•
No Emissions
Minimal operational noise
A Completely Clean Process
Reduced planning permission
requirements
• Output Fuels meets Strict EU
Standards
• No requirement to stockpile Large
Volumes of Feedstock's
• Reduces Carbon Footprint
Substantially
That is Economically Viable
•
•
•
•
Gate Fees
Sale of Energy
Sale of Scrap Steel
Sale of Carbon Black
What revenue could the use of a tyre cracking plant attract?
Tyre
Disposal
Scrap Steel
Gas or
Electricity
Diesel or
Electricity
Carbon
Black
Renewable
Energy
Certificates
Carbon
Credits
14
Using the example of scrap tyres, the input/output from the
plants, assuming 350 days per year
Outputs
Inputs
Shredded
rubber or
pellets
from
car tyres
ton/PA
MWh
Carbon
(solids)
produce
d
23%
Quantity
of gas
ton/pa
15%
Quantity
of diesel
ton/pa
52%
MWhr
achievable
from the gas
and diesel
pa
MWhr
for
export
pa
Generator
size
C750
5,900
3,320
1,357
885
3,068
16,602
13,282
1 x 2,000 KVA
1 x 600 KVA
C750/2
11,800
6,640
2,714
1,770
6,136
33,205
26,565
5 x 1,000 KVA
1 x 600 KVA
C1500/
2
25,200
14,18
3
5,796
3,780
13,104
70,913
56,730
5 x 2,000 KVA
1 x 800 KVA
Plant
15
How does that compare?
For a 40,000t pa plant
CEML
Competitor’s Pyrolysis
Capital cost (complete
plant, less connection
and land)
€30m
€30m
Output MW
Output MW/h
11.8 MW
99,500 MWh
3.4-1.5 = 2.9MW
22,970MWh
Space required
1,500-2,300sqm
1,500-2,300sqm
0%
NOx 38%
SO² 34%
Dioxin 2%
Noxious gases as a
percentage of EU
limits
The real difference is the result of molecular
cracking rather than burning
16
The Environmental Problem
Automotive
Shredder
Residue
(ASR) Car
Fluff
End of Life Tyres
(ELT)
•Rigid Plastics
17
End of Life vehicles (ELT)
The End of life Vehicle directive
(2000/53/EC) is the framework
of disposal and has been
adopted by the UK Government
• In Europe 9,000,000 tonnes of
ELV’s arise each year
• In the UK there are
approximately 2 million tonnes
ELV’s per year currently
• 400,000 are premature i.e.
scrapped due to Accidents (17%)
• 1.5 million are natural ELV’s
disposed responsibly (71%)
• 200,000 are abandoned(11%)1%
• equates to illegal parts resulting
from stolen vehicles
European Legislation Directive
2000/53/EEC
• The Directive aims to decrease
the quantity of waste arising
from vehicles by weight
• The rate of re-use and recovery:
• 85% no later than 1 January 2006
• 95% no later than 1 January 2015
• Vehicles built prior to 1980 have
different targets.
• There are key processes that
ELV’s are subjected to prior to
final breakdown
Figures from Tri study report - DEFRA
18
End of Life Vehicles
The diagram below shows the various materials from a vehicle
19
End of Life Vehicles
• End of life vehicles have to be processed via an Authorised
Treatment Facility
• Recycling processes are sophisticated delivering a large volume of
product
• Car Fluff has been filtered to a very fine degree however there is
plastic left that cannot be recycled
• Non recycled plastic goes to landfill incurring a substantial cost
• Current charges are £56 per tonne rising by £8 per annum through
to 2014
20
An Environment Friendly Solution to Car Fluff Waste
Cracking Energy Machines Ltd
• No Emissions
• Minimal operational noise
• Reduced planning permission
requirements
• Output Fuels meets Strict EU
Standards
• No requirement to stockpile
Large Volumes of Feedstock's
• Reduces Carbon Footprint
Substantially
Economically Viable
• No fees to landfill
• Sale of energy
• Using a totally non
recyclable waste
21
The Environmental Problem
End of Life
Tyres
(ELT)
• Rigid Plastics
Automotiv
e
Shredder
Residue
(ASR) Car
Fluff
22
Rigid Plastics
There are a range of different plastics that can be recycled; in order to
assist recycling they are marked with an agreed code located in the
recycling triangle
Recyclable Rigid Plastics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PET – Polyethylene Terephthalate – Code 1
HDPE – High Density Polyethylene – Code 2
PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride – Code 3
LDPE – Low Density Polyethylene – Code 4
PP – Polypropylene – Code 5
PS – Polystyrene – Code 6
Other Plastics – Code 7
23
Relative Occurrence
24
UK Plastic Waste Volumes
The most recent review of UK plastic waste volumes was carried out in 2006 by WRAP
25
Global Volumes
The global consumption of plastics is over 200 million Tonnes pa and
growing. Based on the experience of several European countries with a
strong domestic recycling activity; from a technical perspective is
would seem practical for well over 20% of global consumption to be
met by recycled plastics – at least 40 million Tonnes pa.
26
CEML Technology
CEML Technology
• CEML’s thermodynamic cracking technology can use waste plastic
as a feedstock. After transformation, the waste plastic is converted
into:• Diesel that complies with specification EN:
• Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG – Propane) that complies with EN:
27
The input/output characteristics of the CEML C750 and C1500 machine using plastic as a
feedstock
are as follows;
Input Output Data Sheet – typical mixed plastics
Machine Configuration
INPUT – Typical Mixed Plastic
Volumes of plastic shreds per hour - kg/hr
Assume 24 hours operation – Tonnes/day
Assume 350 days pa Operation - Tonnes pa
OUTPUTS - Percentage by weight
Diesel
Gas
Carbon
Ash
OUTPUTS – Weight and volume
Diesel weight, kg/hr
Diesel volume, Litres/hr
Diesel volume, Litres/pa
C750
C750/2
C1500
C1500/2
700
16.8
5,880
1,400
33.6
11,760
1,500
36.0
12,600
3,000
72.0
25,200
35%
45%
19%
1%
35%
45%
19%
1%
35%
45%
19%
1%
35%
45%
19%
1%
245
288
2,421,176
490
576
4,842,353
525
618
5,188,235
1,050
1,235
10,376,471
Propane Gas weight, kg/hr
Propane Gas volume, m³/hr
Propane Gas volume, m³/pa
315
420
3,528,000
280
147
1,237,895
300
158
1,326,316
600
316
2,652,632
Carbon weight, kg/hr
Carbon weight, kg/pa
133
1,117,200
350
2,940,000
375
3,150,000
750
6,300,000
28
Input Output Data Sheet – typical mixed plastics
C750
Cracking machine efficiency
Cracking machine power demand, kW
inc processing?
Total available diesel generation –
gross kW
Total available gas generation – gross
kW
Total available net export power ekW
81%
89
1,383
1,680
2,974
29
Appendix I – Emissions from Pyrolysis versus Cracking
Pyrolysis
Cracking
ton/day
Kg/s
Kg/s
Incoming Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF)
72
0.83
0.83
Air input
395
4.58
0
CO2 emission
121
1.4
0
N2 emission
312
3.6
0
H2O emission
38
0.43
0
Total volatiles emission
470
5.4
0
Solid residue
2.16
0.025
0
Based on plants that handle 72 tons of RDF per day
30
Appendix II – composition of fuel and testing
• Liquids
– Tested to EN590:2009.01
– EN590 describes the physical properties that all automotive
diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the EU, Iceland,
Norway and Switzerland
– It allows for blending up to 5% Biodiesel for a 95/5mix
– Tested to EN14214. The standard for Biodiesel
• LPG
– Tested to BS EN 589:2008
– BS EN 589:2008 specifies requirements and test methods for
marketed and delivered automotive LPG (Liquefied Petroleum
Gas)
• Carbon Black
– Tested to BS ISO 6209:2009
– The standard for Rubber
compounding ingredients
Appendix III – Other Materials We Can Process
Material
Examples
Polypropylene
Food containers, particularly those that need to be
dishwasher safe
Polythene
Shopping bags
Polycarbonate
Sports bottles, baby bottles, food containers
Polystyrene
Disposable cutlery, CD & DVD cases, smoke detectors
Natural rubber
Rubber bands, hoses, elastic, wetsuits
Synthetic rubber
Bicycle tyres, car dashboards, shoes
Scraps from leather
industry
Diaries, bags, belts, chairs
Organic matter
Wood, vegetables, vegetation
Polyurethane
Drainpipes, luggage, non food packing
% of output depends on materials
used
32
Appendix IV Input Output Calculator - Based on Tyres
750
750/2
1500
1500/2
INPUTS
Volumes of rubber shreds per hour - Kg/hr
700
1,400
1,500
3,000
Assume 20% of tyre is steel - rubber and steel
875
1,750
1,875
3,750
97
194
208
417
816,667
1,633,333
1,750,000
3,500,000
7,350
14,700
15,750
31,500
Assume each car tyre is 9kg - Tyres per hour
Assume 350 days pa Operation - Tyres pa
Assume 350 days pa Operation - Tonnes pa
Percentage by weight output
Diesel
Gas
Carbon Black
55%
20%
25%
55%
20%
25%
55%
20%
25%
55%
20%
25%
OUTPUTS
Diesel Litres/hr
453
906
971
1,941
Diesel Litres/pa
3,804,706
7,609,412
8,152,941
16,305,882
Gas Volume/hr - M3
74
147
158
316
Gas Volume/pa - M3
618,947
1,237,895
1,326,316
2,652,632
Carbon Black Kg/hr
175
350
375
750
Carbon Black Kg/pa
1,470,000
2,940,000
3,150,000
6,300,000
33
Appendix V Electricity Generation.
Assume 1 litre of Diesel will produce 4.8KWhr
Assume 1cubic meter of gas will produce 4KWhr
Assume generation powerfactor
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
Machine efficiency
81%
83%
88%
89%
Machine load- KW
469
839
635
1,164
2,174.12
4,348.24
4,658.82
9,317.65
294.74
589.47
631.58
1,263.16
Total
2,468.85
4,937.71
5,290.40
10,580.80
eKW to export from generator - KW
1,975.08
3,950.17
4,232.32
8,464.64
Output power after machine loading - KW
1,506.00
3,110.76
3,597.47
7,300.76
Diesel generated Power
Gas generated Power
34
Contact
Cracking Energy Machines Ltd
The Office Building
Gatwick Road
Crawley
West Sussex
RH10 9RZ
Tel: +44 (0) 1293 847480
[email protected]
www.ceml.eu
UK Agents
Harman Martin Ltd
Robin Martin
07967 233062
Steve Harman
07528 208387
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