Chapter 3

advertisement
Chapter 3
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
Section 3.1
Introduction to Workplace Safety
Pages 132-137
Safety and the Law
The safety of all customers and employees is the
responsibility of every foodservice establishment. (legal right
& safe environment for employees)
Managers are expected to know about hazard and what to do
to correct them.
Premises = encompass all the property around the
restaurant.
Restaurants that fail to provide safety for their customers or
employees can be sued, and can lose their good reputation,
as well as money. BENEFITS – repeat customers, employee
job satisfaction, lower operating costs, increased profitability.
Liability = legal responsibility that one person has to another
Workers’ Compensation
Workers’ compensation = state-administered
program designed to help employees who are
injured in accidents that occurred at work, or
who become sick because of job-related
reasons.
– Provide payments for lost work time, payments for
medical treatment, and payments for rehabilitation
and retaining for the injured employee.
Government Regulations
Government rules are strictly enforced to ensure that
all employees in a foodservice establishment are
working in a place that emphasizes safety.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration) = federal agency that creates and
enforces safety related standards and regulations in
the workplace. (Specific forms for investigating and
reporting accidents, injuries and illnesses.
Gov. Regulations Continued
Most common OSHA violations found in restaurants is the lack
of hazard communication programs = also called right-to-know
and HAZCOM. (requires that all employers notify their
employees about chemical hazards present on the job, and
train employees about MSD sheets – look pg. 135)
Every foodservice operation must display an up-to-date
version of the OSHA poster No. 2202 “Job Safety and Health
Protection,” where employees can easily see
Physical Hazards
Health Hazards ( carcinogenic, toxic or corrosive)
Common Foodservice Chemicals
CHEMICAL CLEANERS
FUELS
OTHERS
Ammonia (Quarts)
Brass/Silver
Propane
Carbon dioxide gas
cylinders
Chlorine bleach
Coffee pot cleaners
Butane
Nitrogen dioxide gas
cylinders
Disinfectants
Drain Cleaners
Fire extinguishers
Floor Cleaners
Dishwashing detergents
Herbicides, fungicides
and Pesticides
Degreasing agents
Floor Treatments
Example of a MSDS Sheet
http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?invocationTy
pe=topsearchbox.search&query=MSDS+sheet+
on+bleach
– Must have an up-to-date, written inventory of every
hazardous chemical product.
– MSDS sheet for every chemical on the chemical
inventory list
– Easy-to-read labels
– Written copy of the establishments training program
and establishments Hazard Communication Plan
Questions???
What is liability?
What does the Hazard Communications
Standard require of employers?
What is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)?
Section 3.2
Preventing Fires and Burns
Pg. 138-146
Fire Hazards
1/3 of all accidental fires in restaurants are due to
either faulty electrical wiring and equipment, or to
improper use of equipment.
Grease fires can be prevented by following a regular
cleaning schedule for walls and work surfaces;
ranges, fryers, broilers, microwave and convection
ovens
– All flammable items must be stored away from the stove.
(Pam, chemicals, linens etc.)
– Arson = the deliberate and malicious burning of property
Before Using and Electrical
Appliance, Check for:
Plug with same size prongs
Frayed cord
Too many plugs in an outlet or extension cord
Cracked switch plate
Cracked receptacle plate
Lack of grounded plug
Lack of grounded outlet
Common fire detection devices
Smoke Detectors
Ionization detectors – Use a small
electrical current to attract
combustion particles from smoke,
heat or flames
Heat Detectors
Thermostats – Contain a metal strip
or disk that closes against an
electrical contact and starts the alarm
when a present temp. is reached.
Photoelectric detectors – Use a beam Rate of rise detectors - Trigger an
of light located inside the device to
alarm when the temp. rises faster
react to smoke or flame.
than a present number of degrees
per minute
Smoke detector = require a flow of air in order to
work well (not used for food prep. Areas)
Heat detectors = able to detect fires where there
is no smoke and are activated by a significant
increase of temp. associated with fire
Flame detectors – Use infrared and
ultraviolet sensors that respond to the
movement of flame, or to its radiant
energy.
Classes of Fires
A – Ordinary Combustibles
• Trash, wood, paper, cloth, cardboard
• Most often occur in food storage rooms, dining areas and
restrooms
B – Flammable liquids
• Grease, oil, flammable liquids
• May occur in kitchens (deep-fat fryers) and maintenance areas
C – Electrical Equipment
• Electrical equipment, cords, motors, switches, wiring
• Fires in a toaster, cord igniting, in a motor of a grinder
Types of Fire Extinguishers
Water-based:
– Rechargeable from a clean water source
– Use on Class A fires only
Aqueous film-forming foam
– Red. temp. and supply of oxygen to fire
– Use on Class A or B fires
– Do not use on deep-fat fryer fires
Carbon dioxide
– Gas-based mixture leaving no residue, limited range
– Use on Class B or C fires
Dry chemicals
– Interrupt chemical action that sustains fire
– Available in A/B/C and B/C
– Only B/C type should be used on deep-fat fires
PASS SYSTEM
- Pull
- Aim
- Squeeze
- Sweep
Evacuating
To protect employees and customers if there is a
fire, a well-designed and practiced emergency
plan should be ready-in advanced.
– Evacuation routes are usually planned to give
everyone at least 2 ways out of the building
– Keep routes and exits clear and unlocked
– Mark each route w/ signs and lights
– Provide emergency lighting
– Exit steps and ramps should be marked, kept clear,
and repaired as needed.
Should You Fight a Fire?
The most important rule for fighting a fire is to
ask yourself if you are in danger.
– The only fire you may be able to handle are small,
such as a fire in a single pan, or a trash can.
– How would I put out a fire in the: ?????
• Stove
• Microwave
• Stove top
Preventing Burns
Correct uniforms and protective equipment can protect
employees against spattering, escaping steam and hot
equipment.
– Can wet material transfer heat faster or slower than dry
material?
– What could happen if I grabbed a hot pan w/rubber gloves?
Flow of food is very important – why?
Oil vs. water? (frying w/frozen food)
Steam burns and steam tables
Removing dishes from hot water or dishwasher?
Questions???
What is the PASS system and what does it stand
for?
What are the three classes of fires? What
materials burn in each fire
Name some basic traffic principles that can help
prevent burns?
3.3
Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls
Preventing Slips, Trips, & Falls
Most slips, trips, and falls occur on 3 surfaces:
• Steps
• Floors
• Pavement (outside of building)
Best way to safeguard customers/coworkers is
by anticipating what might happen.
• For the safety of everyone, all aisles in serving and dining
areas should be at least four feet wide (putting chairs in
the aisle is sometimes a fire hazard)
• Outside areas need to be checked (snow/ice/water/tree
branches etc)
Preventing Slips, Trips, & Falls
Grease and oil on floors is a major cause of slips/falls
• Floors thoroughly cleaned at least once a day
• Floor coverings cleaned
• Non-skid floor mats
Spills cleaned up immediately
• Verbally warn nearby customers/employees
• Post signs “Caution-Wet Floor”
• Direct people around spill
Stairs, ramps and raised dining areas
•
•
•
•
Well light
Clearly mark stairs and ramps
Handrails sturdy and secure
Keep stairs clear of obstacles (never use them for storage areas)
Using Ladders Safely
Three common ladders used in storage areas
– Straight ladders (reach 3 ft)
– Step ladders (long enough so you do not have to stand on top step)
– Step stools (long enough so you do not have to stand on top step)
Lifting Loads Safely
–
–
–
–
–
Check your footing and condition of the floor
Face toward the load
Bend at the knees
Keep back straight
Lift w/leg muscles
The safest way to use a ladder is for 2 employees to work
together: 1 person should hold the bottom of the ladder,
and the other person should pass and receive items.
Ladder Safety Continued
Set the ladder away from overhead obstacles
Fest the ladder feet on a firm, flat and clean
surface.
Lock the folding bar of a step ladder
Never put a metal ladder on, or near electrical
wiring
Lock doors near the ladder
What else are some safety tips?
Questions???
Name three things you should do when there is
a spill being cleaned up?
What can you do to prevent slips and falls on
stairs and ramps?
What information should be on the label of a
ladder?
Is it safe to stand on the top step of a ladder is
someone is holding it steady for you?
3.4
Lifting and Carrying Safely
Lifting and Carrying Safely
Safe Lifting Practices:
• Wear sturdy-non-skid shoes
• Check the weight of the load
• Don’t wear loose clothes that might catch on the load or
on a nearby object and throw off your balance
• Look for hand holds
• Balance load
• Ask for help
• Use hand trucks, dollies, or carts for moving heavy loads
• Use proper lifting techniques
Questions???
Why is it important to lift and carry items safely?
Always lift with you _______ and not your
_______?
What can happen if you transport items
improperly?
What precautions should be taken before lifting
anything?
3.5
Preventing Cuts
Preventing Cuts
Cuts happen most frequently to kitchen
employees, but other employees/customers can
get hurt too, these are some sharp hazards:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cans, can lids, and can openers
Cutting strips on boxes or aluminum foil and plastic wrap
Wooden crates
Box openers and utility knifes
Steak and chef knifes
Broken bottles, glasses and dishes
Machinery with blades
TO AVOID CUTS
To avoid cuts, follow simple kitchen safety tips:
• Use gloves or a towel to protect hands while removing
lids from glass bottles or jars
• Use proper openers
• Use plastic or metal scoops and ladles to handle food and
ice (how do you scoop out ice)
• Cover food w/plastic wraps or lids instead of glass
• Throw out nearby food or ice when glass is broken –
why?
• What would happen if glass is broken near an ice
machine?
• How would you handle, clean a slicer?
– What are some proper techniques for cleaning and how old do
you need to be?
Clean up & Discard glass & cans
Rinse empty glass/metal cans and store properly
Broken glass needs to be cleaned up immediately
How would you clean up broken glass?
QUESTIONS
Name 3 sharp hazards you are likely to find in a
kitchen?
Name 4 kitchen safety tips?
What is the proper way to pass a knife to another
person?
3.6
Safe Driving and First Aid
Safe Driving
Safe driving is not only important for making
deliveries, but also for running work-related
errands or catering.
•
•
•
•
•
Managers should check driving record and offer training
Wear a seatbelt at all times
Lock all doors
Obey traffic laws, signs
Do not smoke while driving
First Aid
First aid = refers to medical treatment given to an injured
person either for light injuries or until more complete
treatment can be provided by emergency service or other
health care providers
• Effective first aid meets the injured person’s emotional as well as medical
needs.
• To ensure employee and customer safety, always remember:
–
–
–
–
Accidents can be prevented
Accidents have serious results
You need to help keep yourself safe
You have a large responsibility to keep you customers and other employees
safe.
First Aid Continued
First aid kits should be located within easy reach of
possible accident sites.
Most foodservice injuries are minor, but it is important to
know CRP and Heimlich maneuver
– Cardiopulmonary resuscitation = restores breathing and heartbeat to
injured persons who show no signs of breathing or pulse
– Heimlich maneuver = removes food or other obstacles from a person’s
airway if someone is choking.
Training and certification must be renewed
All employees need to be trained on how to handle
emergencies including:
• Foodborne outbreaks, employee w/contagious illnesses,
customer/employee injured, accidents involving restaurant vehicles,
loss of power, fires, floods, and armed robberies
Questions???
Name three emergencies that are likely to occur
in a restaurant?
What is first aid?
When is the Heimlich maneuver performed?
When is CPR performed and what does it stand
for?
3.7
Safety as an Ongoing Process
The Safety Audit
Any safety program must meet the operation’s specific
needs
– Include any other items, depending upon the geographic location
The purpose of a general safety audit is to give you an
overview of the level of safety in the establishment.
The safety audit is in the form of a checklist, a no
response to any item requires follow up
• Regular safety self-inspections can help make sure safety practices
are used throughout the operation
– Facilities (exterior and interior)
– Equipment (all, cooking, cutting equipment, refrigerators, tools,
vehicles, fire extinguishers and alarms)
– Employee practices (must be trained in safe practices)
– Management practices (evaluate the level of commitment to protecting
employees and customers)
Accident Investigation
Accident = unplanned, undesirable event that you can
cause property damage, injuries or fatalities, lost time
from work, and disruptions of work.
Near miss = an event in which property damage or
injury is narrowly avoided.
A foodservice establishment is required to report to
OSHA within 8 hours any accident resulting in death, or
the hospitalization of 3 ore more employees. Other
employee injuries and illnesses must be recorded within
6 working days. Also employers must keep a one-year
period of accidents and illnesses.
Six Procedures for Accident
Investigation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Record information as soon as possible after the
event occurs
Collect physical evident or take pictures at the site
Interview all people involved and any witnesses
Determine as clearly as possible the sequence of
event.
Submit reports to OSHA, insurance carrier, lawyer
etc.
Keep all employees informed of procedures and
hazards.
HOW COULD YOU PROMOTE SAFETY?
Protective Clothing and Equipment
Supply good-quality equipment
Employees should not wear loose or baggy shirts and
could get caught
Jewelry should not be worn
Cooks should wear long sleeves
Dishwashers should wear water-resistant aprons
Shoes should have skid-resistant soles and low heels
Different types of gloves (knife, hot mitts, rubber,
disposable
Goggles/Protective clothing for cleaning
Questions???
What is a general safety audit?
What are the four general areas to check during
a safety audit?
Why are loose or baggy shirts unsafe?
What is the best way for managers to get
employees to comply with safety standards?
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards