Chapter 3 Preventing Accidents and Injuries Section 3.1 Introduction to Workplace Safety Pages 132-137 Safety and the Law The safety of all customers and employees is the responsibility of every foodservice establishment. (legal right & safe environment for employees) Managers are expected to know about hazard and what to do to correct them. Premises = encompass all the property around the restaurant. Restaurants that fail to provide safety for their customers or employees can be sued, and can lose their good reputation, as well as money. BENEFITS – repeat customers, employee job satisfaction, lower operating costs, increased profitability. Liability = legal responsibility that one person has to another Workers’ Compensation Workers’ compensation = state-administered program designed to help employees who are injured in accidents that occurred at work, or who become sick because of job-related reasons. – Provide payments for lost work time, payments for medical treatment, and payments for rehabilitation and retaining for the injured employee. Government Regulations Government rules are strictly enforced to ensure that all employees in a foodservice establishment are working in a place that emphasizes safety. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) = federal agency that creates and enforces safety related standards and regulations in the workplace. (Specific forms for investigating and reporting accidents, injuries and illnesses. Gov. Regulations Continued Most common OSHA violations found in restaurants is the lack of hazard communication programs = also called right-to-know and HAZCOM. (requires that all employers notify their employees about chemical hazards present on the job, and train employees about MSD sheets – look pg. 135) Every foodservice operation must display an up-to-date version of the OSHA poster No. 2202 “Job Safety and Health Protection,” where employees can easily see Physical Hazards Health Hazards ( carcinogenic, toxic or corrosive) Common Foodservice Chemicals CHEMICAL CLEANERS FUELS OTHERS Ammonia (Quarts) Brass/Silver Propane Carbon dioxide gas cylinders Chlorine bleach Coffee pot cleaners Butane Nitrogen dioxide gas cylinders Disinfectants Drain Cleaners Fire extinguishers Floor Cleaners Dishwashing detergents Herbicides, fungicides and Pesticides Degreasing agents Floor Treatments Example of a MSDS Sheet http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?invocationTy pe=topsearchbox.search&query=MSDS+sheet+ on+bleach – Must have an up-to-date, written inventory of every hazardous chemical product. – MSDS sheet for every chemical on the chemical inventory list – Easy-to-read labels – Written copy of the establishments training program and establishments Hazard Communication Plan Questions??? What is liability? What does the Hazard Communications Standard require of employers? What is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)? Section 3.2 Preventing Fires and Burns Pg. 138-146 Fire Hazards 1/3 of all accidental fires in restaurants are due to either faulty electrical wiring and equipment, or to improper use of equipment. Grease fires can be prevented by following a regular cleaning schedule for walls and work surfaces; ranges, fryers, broilers, microwave and convection ovens – All flammable items must be stored away from the stove. (Pam, chemicals, linens etc.) – Arson = the deliberate and malicious burning of property Before Using and Electrical Appliance, Check for: Plug with same size prongs Frayed cord Too many plugs in an outlet or extension cord Cracked switch plate Cracked receptacle plate Lack of grounded plug Lack of grounded outlet Common fire detection devices Smoke Detectors Ionization detectors – Use a small electrical current to attract combustion particles from smoke, heat or flames Heat Detectors Thermostats – Contain a metal strip or disk that closes against an electrical contact and starts the alarm when a present temp. is reached. Photoelectric detectors – Use a beam Rate of rise detectors - Trigger an of light located inside the device to alarm when the temp. rises faster react to smoke or flame. than a present number of degrees per minute Smoke detector = require a flow of air in order to work well (not used for food prep. Areas) Heat detectors = able to detect fires where there is no smoke and are activated by a significant increase of temp. associated with fire Flame detectors – Use infrared and ultraviolet sensors that respond to the movement of flame, or to its radiant energy. Classes of Fires A – Ordinary Combustibles • Trash, wood, paper, cloth, cardboard • Most often occur in food storage rooms, dining areas and restrooms B – Flammable liquids • Grease, oil, flammable liquids • May occur in kitchens (deep-fat fryers) and maintenance areas C – Electrical Equipment • Electrical equipment, cords, motors, switches, wiring • Fires in a toaster, cord igniting, in a motor of a grinder Types of Fire Extinguishers Water-based: – Rechargeable from a clean water source – Use on Class A fires only Aqueous film-forming foam – Red. temp. and supply of oxygen to fire – Use on Class A or B fires – Do not use on deep-fat fryer fires Carbon dioxide – Gas-based mixture leaving no residue, limited range – Use on Class B or C fires Dry chemicals – Interrupt chemical action that sustains fire – Available in A/B/C and B/C – Only B/C type should be used on deep-fat fires PASS SYSTEM - Pull - Aim - Squeeze - Sweep Evacuating To protect employees and customers if there is a fire, a well-designed and practiced emergency plan should be ready-in advanced. – Evacuation routes are usually planned to give everyone at least 2 ways out of the building – Keep routes and exits clear and unlocked – Mark each route w/ signs and lights – Provide emergency lighting – Exit steps and ramps should be marked, kept clear, and repaired as needed. Should You Fight a Fire? The most important rule for fighting a fire is to ask yourself if you are in danger. – The only fire you may be able to handle are small, such as a fire in a single pan, or a trash can. – How would I put out a fire in the: ????? • Stove • Microwave • Stove top Preventing Burns Correct uniforms and protective equipment can protect employees against spattering, escaping steam and hot equipment. – Can wet material transfer heat faster or slower than dry material? – What could happen if I grabbed a hot pan w/rubber gloves? Flow of food is very important – why? Oil vs. water? (frying w/frozen food) Steam burns and steam tables Removing dishes from hot water or dishwasher? Questions??? What is the PASS system and what does it stand for? What are the three classes of fires? What materials burn in each fire Name some basic traffic principles that can help prevent burns? 3.3 Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls Preventing Slips, Trips, & Falls Most slips, trips, and falls occur on 3 surfaces: • Steps • Floors • Pavement (outside of building) Best way to safeguard customers/coworkers is by anticipating what might happen. • For the safety of everyone, all aisles in serving and dining areas should be at least four feet wide (putting chairs in the aisle is sometimes a fire hazard) • Outside areas need to be checked (snow/ice/water/tree branches etc) Preventing Slips, Trips, & Falls Grease and oil on floors is a major cause of slips/falls • Floors thoroughly cleaned at least once a day • Floor coverings cleaned • Non-skid floor mats Spills cleaned up immediately • Verbally warn nearby customers/employees • Post signs “Caution-Wet Floor” • Direct people around spill Stairs, ramps and raised dining areas • • • • Well light Clearly mark stairs and ramps Handrails sturdy and secure Keep stairs clear of obstacles (never use them for storage areas) Using Ladders Safely Three common ladders used in storage areas – Straight ladders (reach 3 ft) – Step ladders (long enough so you do not have to stand on top step) – Step stools (long enough so you do not have to stand on top step) Lifting Loads Safely – – – – – Check your footing and condition of the floor Face toward the load Bend at the knees Keep back straight Lift w/leg muscles The safest way to use a ladder is for 2 employees to work together: 1 person should hold the bottom of the ladder, and the other person should pass and receive items. Ladder Safety Continued Set the ladder away from overhead obstacles Fest the ladder feet on a firm, flat and clean surface. Lock the folding bar of a step ladder Never put a metal ladder on, or near electrical wiring Lock doors near the ladder What else are some safety tips? Questions??? Name three things you should do when there is a spill being cleaned up? What can you do to prevent slips and falls on stairs and ramps? What information should be on the label of a ladder? Is it safe to stand on the top step of a ladder is someone is holding it steady for you? 3.4 Lifting and Carrying Safely Lifting and Carrying Safely Safe Lifting Practices: • Wear sturdy-non-skid shoes • Check the weight of the load • Don’t wear loose clothes that might catch on the load or on a nearby object and throw off your balance • Look for hand holds • Balance load • Ask for help • Use hand trucks, dollies, or carts for moving heavy loads • Use proper lifting techniques Questions??? Why is it important to lift and carry items safely? Always lift with you _______ and not your _______? What can happen if you transport items improperly? What precautions should be taken before lifting anything? 3.5 Preventing Cuts Preventing Cuts Cuts happen most frequently to kitchen employees, but other employees/customers can get hurt too, these are some sharp hazards: • • • • • • • Cans, can lids, and can openers Cutting strips on boxes or aluminum foil and plastic wrap Wooden crates Box openers and utility knifes Steak and chef knifes Broken bottles, glasses and dishes Machinery with blades TO AVOID CUTS To avoid cuts, follow simple kitchen safety tips: • Use gloves or a towel to protect hands while removing lids from glass bottles or jars • Use proper openers • Use plastic or metal scoops and ladles to handle food and ice (how do you scoop out ice) • Cover food w/plastic wraps or lids instead of glass • Throw out nearby food or ice when glass is broken – why? • What would happen if glass is broken near an ice machine? • How would you handle, clean a slicer? – What are some proper techniques for cleaning and how old do you need to be? Clean up & Discard glass & cans Rinse empty glass/metal cans and store properly Broken glass needs to be cleaned up immediately How would you clean up broken glass? QUESTIONS Name 3 sharp hazards you are likely to find in a kitchen? Name 4 kitchen safety tips? What is the proper way to pass a knife to another person? 3.6 Safe Driving and First Aid Safe Driving Safe driving is not only important for making deliveries, but also for running work-related errands or catering. • • • • • Managers should check driving record and offer training Wear a seatbelt at all times Lock all doors Obey traffic laws, signs Do not smoke while driving First Aid First aid = refers to medical treatment given to an injured person either for light injuries or until more complete treatment can be provided by emergency service or other health care providers • Effective first aid meets the injured person’s emotional as well as medical needs. • To ensure employee and customer safety, always remember: – – – – Accidents can be prevented Accidents have serious results You need to help keep yourself safe You have a large responsibility to keep you customers and other employees safe. First Aid Continued First aid kits should be located within easy reach of possible accident sites. Most foodservice injuries are minor, but it is important to know CRP and Heimlich maneuver – Cardiopulmonary resuscitation = restores breathing and heartbeat to injured persons who show no signs of breathing or pulse – Heimlich maneuver = removes food or other obstacles from a person’s airway if someone is choking. Training and certification must be renewed All employees need to be trained on how to handle emergencies including: • Foodborne outbreaks, employee w/contagious illnesses, customer/employee injured, accidents involving restaurant vehicles, loss of power, fires, floods, and armed robberies Questions??? Name three emergencies that are likely to occur in a restaurant? What is first aid? When is the Heimlich maneuver performed? When is CPR performed and what does it stand for? 3.7 Safety as an Ongoing Process The Safety Audit Any safety program must meet the operation’s specific needs – Include any other items, depending upon the geographic location The purpose of a general safety audit is to give you an overview of the level of safety in the establishment. The safety audit is in the form of a checklist, a no response to any item requires follow up • Regular safety self-inspections can help make sure safety practices are used throughout the operation – Facilities (exterior and interior) – Equipment (all, cooking, cutting equipment, refrigerators, tools, vehicles, fire extinguishers and alarms) – Employee practices (must be trained in safe practices) – Management practices (evaluate the level of commitment to protecting employees and customers) Accident Investigation Accident = unplanned, undesirable event that you can cause property damage, injuries or fatalities, lost time from work, and disruptions of work. Near miss = an event in which property damage or injury is narrowly avoided. A foodservice establishment is required to report to OSHA within 8 hours any accident resulting in death, or the hospitalization of 3 ore more employees. Other employee injuries and illnesses must be recorded within 6 working days. Also employers must keep a one-year period of accidents and illnesses. Six Procedures for Accident Investigation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Record information as soon as possible after the event occurs Collect physical evident or take pictures at the site Interview all people involved and any witnesses Determine as clearly as possible the sequence of event. Submit reports to OSHA, insurance carrier, lawyer etc. Keep all employees informed of procedures and hazards. HOW COULD YOU PROMOTE SAFETY? Protective Clothing and Equipment Supply good-quality equipment Employees should not wear loose or baggy shirts and could get caught Jewelry should not be worn Cooks should wear long sleeves Dishwashers should wear water-resistant aprons Shoes should have skid-resistant soles and low heels Different types of gloves (knife, hot mitts, rubber, disposable Goggles/Protective clothing for cleaning Questions??? What is a general safety audit? What are the four general areas to check during a safety audit? Why are loose or baggy shirts unsafe? What is the best way for managers to get employees to comply with safety standards?