Teacher Information! Necessary materials: PowerPoint Guide Wildland Fire Types and Fighting Fire Pgs 283-289 in Ch.22 of Managing Our Natural Resources Rangelands, Forests, & Fire Students will be able to… Describe the types of wildland fires. Discuss fire suppression. Who started the fire? Wildfires may be Natural mainly lightning or… Human-caused Incendiary-the unlawful setting of fire Includes arson and escaped planned fires Unattended campfires Types of Wildland Fires 3 types based on fire intensity Ground fire Surface fire Crown fire Fire intensity the rate a fire produces heat measured as temperature or heat yield Ground Fires Burn the organic materials beneath the surface litter of the forest floor Fuels like peat, coal, tree roots Common in wet, boggy areas Smoldering fire, usually no flames Very high heat kills root systems Surface Fires Burn surface litter and small vegetation Forest canopy is not generally burned Most fires begin as surface fires Easiest to control Crown Fires Burn from top to top of trees or shrubs Most dangerous type of fire Can easily spread due to wind Anatomy of a Fire Head the most active part of a fire; a fire can have more than one Rear: the slowest burning part of a fire Flank: the sides of the fire, between the head and the rear Flank Rear Burned area Wind Head Fire Anatomy Influenced by: Air movement horizontal & vertical movement of air & wind speed Fire season July-September in Idaho Topography Steeper slopes = faster fire, more updrafting winds Presences of roads, streams = fire barriers Fire Behavior These factors that affect fire anatomy result in fire behavior The rate of spread or speed of a fire Fire intensity Some conditions can decrease the rate of spread Rain Wind reversal Increased relative humidity Fuel Types Influence fire behavior Two types Ground fuels peat, duff, tree roots, leaves, dead grass, weeds, low shrubs Aerial fuels burnable material in canopies above 6 ft from the ground Wildfire Detection Lookout towers An alidade determine the azimuth of a detected fire from two lookout towers Triangulation 2 azimuths taken from two towers pinpoints fire location Telephone reports from motorists Wildfire Detection Fire-watch planes Remote sensing equipment Satellite imaging systems Preventing Wildfire Education campaigns Smokey Bear Keep America Green Thinning Prescribed burning National Fire Danger Rating System Fire danger indices Suppressing Wildfire Direct attack Indirect attack Removes fuel from the fire triangle The flames are attacked Fire lanes Fire barriers Backfire Mopping up Patrolling the fire line after the fire is under control Review Describe the types of wildland fires. Discuss fire suppression.