Deaf and Hearing Impaired Inclusion Presentation

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Deafness and Hearing Loss
Patrick Moriarty
EDSP 6644
Definition
Hearing impairment is when an individual
loses the ability to hear in either one or both
ears. The level of impairment can vary from
mild to severe or total loss of hearing.
IDEA
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act defines
deafness and hearing impairment as follows: “Deafness means
a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired
in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or
without amplification, [and] that adversely affects a child’s
educational performance.... Hearing impairment means an
impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that
adversely affects a child’s education performance but that is
not included under the definition of deafness…” (Heward,
2009).
2 Types
There are two types of hearing impairment: one is
called conductive hearing impairment which is
when the outer or middle ear is damaged. This
can be medically treated. The second is
sensorineural and this is when there is damage to
the inner part of the ear. In most cases, this is
irreversible and cannot be healed.
Facts
• Nearly 300 million people worldwide
suffer from some hearing loss in both
ears.
• The majority of those people live in
developing or middle class countries.
• About 38 million Americans report
some hearing loss.
• 2 to 3 out of 1000 children born in the
U.S. are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. 9
out of 10 are born to parents with
hearing.
Characteristics
• Difficulty following
directions and instructions
• Difficulty with
interpersonal skills
• Language delay
• Easily frustrated leading
to behavioral difficulties
• They use American sign
language as their first
language
Characteristics Cont.
• Difficulty with speech, reading and writing skills
• Often struggle with reading and writing because sign
language is their first language, so English is a second
language for them
• Socially, deaf culture varies. “Big D” deaf people usually
only socialize with others who are deaf. “Small d” deaf
people try to identify with those who are not deaf.
Cochlear implants are accepted by the “small d” deaf
community and shunned by the “big D” deaf community.
Causes
• Inherited
• Premature birth
• Certain conditions during birth
like lack of oxygen to breath
• Conditions during pregnancy
such as rubella, syphilis, and
other infections
• Jaundice and other infectious
diseases.
• Certain drugs can cause
deafness
• Head injuries
• Excessive loud music
• Old age, to name a few
Article Reviews
Hearing Impaired Children’s Retelling Of
Stories Following Presentation In WholeClass And Individual Contexts
• This research focused on six students with hearing impairment and
their ability to remember a story recited to the class
• The goal was to “determine whether the factors of group size and
interaction influence their comprehension when stories are read aloud
(simultaneous presentation through signing and speaking)”
• Four presentation situations were used, and a different book was read
in each situation
• After a period of time, the students would then retell the story to the
teacher
Andrews, S., et al. (1995). Hearing impaired children’s retelling of stories following presentation in whole-class and individual contexts. Retrieved
from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED389145.pdf
Findings
Results
• “When each story element (setting,
presteps, problem, attempts, resolution,
ending) was examined individually, the
group interactive reading condition
appeared to be the most effective
overall…”
•Specifically, for inclusion of setting, the
interactive and non-interactive group were
equally effective
•And for eliciting resolution, the
individual non-interactive group was
equally effective.
Conclusions
•If a teacher is teaching comprehension
to the deaf or hearing impaired, he/she is
more likely to be successful if it is
presented as a group interactive reading
presentation
•Small group interactions are an
effective method of instruction not only
for a general education population, but
can be successful in self-contained
classrooms
Andrews, S., et al. (1995). Hearing impaired children’s retelling of stories following presentation in whole-class and individual contexts. Retrieved
from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED389145.pdf
Paternal Involvement in the Programs of
Hearing-impaired Children: An Exploratory
Study
•
This research looks at the nature of a father’s involvement with his hearing
impaired child. It focused on how the father’s involvement differed from the
involvement of the child’s mother
•
There is an emphasis on looking at the “technical” involvement and the
“expressive” involvement
•
20 sets of parents participated in the study which was exploratory and
descriptive. There was a total of 23 hearing impaired children in the study
•
The parents were asked to answer 10 questions and a 13-item scale
•
The questions and scale were answered separately by each parent
McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. (1984). Parental involvement in the programs of hearing-impaired children: An exploratory study. The
Family with Handicapped Memebers, 33 (1), 119-125. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584596
Findings
Results
• “Fathers are primarily providers and thus are
less involved in the concerns of their hearingimpaired child”
• “Fathers are unable to become involved in
the concerns of their hearing-impaired child
because of occupational commitments”
• The results also showed that the majority of
fathers and mothers believe that the father
receives enough information and training
about their child’s condition from the mother
• Fathers are defensive about their knowledge
and this leads to marital conflict; they do not
feel welcomed by professionals; and they are
aware of their lack of involvement
Conclusions
• Fathers are typically uninvolved in the
life of their hearing impaired child
• The mother and father differ in their
involvement
• It should not go unnoticed that fathers are
involved and concerned with important
issues in their child’s life
• It should also be noted that only “intact”
families were studied, no single parent
families were used for the study
McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. (1984). Parental involvement in the programs of hearing-impaired children: An exploratory study. The
Family with Handicapped Memebers, 33 (1), 119-125. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584596
Parents’ Needs Following Identification
of Childhood Hearing Loss
•
This study sought to determine the necessary support needed for a child with
hearing loss. More specifically, it sought to understand which components of
support parents believed to be most important for their child
•
Qualitative research methods were applied
•
“Parents from four intervention programs in three cities in the province of
Ontario, Canada, were invited to participate”
•
Only students who participated in oral communication programs were included
in the study
•
Interviews were conducted using a question guide
•
Two primary questions focused on the parents’ needs and the parents’ ideas on
what components lacked in a support system
Fitzpatrick, E., Angus, D., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I., & Coyle, D. (2008). Parents' Needs Following Identification of Childhood Hearing Loss.
American Journal of Audiology, 17(1), 38-49. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2008/005)
Findings
Results
• The study was conducted shortly after a new
universal screening program was implemented in
Canada.
• 17 interviews took place with a total of 21 adults
participating
• “The profound effect of a childhood hearing loss on
the family was captured in the experiences and
decisions made by parents in the early stages”
(Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008)
• Newborn hearing screening services are essential
for all children after they are born
• Access to audiology and therapy services are
imperative during the initial identification stage, but
parents were pleased with the services offered after
the difficult period
• Parents were pleased with language therapy
• All parents were offered social support services, but
the quality varied
Conclusions
• “Population-based newborn hearing screening presents
new opportunities for children with hearing loss and their
families. However, there is a realization that the success of
newborn screening is largely dependent on the
implementation of adequate support programs for children
and families (Hyde, 2005; White, 2003; Yoshinaga-Itano,
2004)” (Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008)
• Most parents were satisfied with the services and
professionalism of the program
• Many parents wanted “to have some notion of the
prognosis for their child with a specific hearing
loss…”(Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008)
• Parents want counseling on information that goes beyond
the clinic providers
• No specific model of services was ideal for all families
• More specific needs of the parents was discovered in this
research
Fitzpatrick, E., Angus, D., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I., & Coyle, D. (2008). Parents' Needs Following Identification of Childhood
Hearing Loss. American Journal of Audiology, 17(1), 38-49. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2008/005)
Recommendations
•Take an interest in the student/s.
-Learn what works best for each individual
-Understand what they need to be successful
-Familiarize yourself with their IEP
• Communication and Language
-Talk with the special ed. Teacher
-Parents are usually a great resource (McNeil & Chabassol, 1984)
-Utilize interpreters when you can
-Learn sign language, or at least the basics (Heward, 2009)
•Trainings/Education
-Attend trainings or classes to learn about hearing impairments
(McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. 1984)
-Utilize professional development and collaborate with other
teachers
•Instruction
-Modify instruction and use various strategies; i.e., small group,
independent, large group work (Andrews, 1995)
Pros
•
•
•
•
•
Inclusion
Deaf students live in a world that is
auditory, so it is beneficial for them to
be as much a part of it as possible
The student has a right to access all that
is offered to the general population
Students who can hear will benefit from
working and socializing with those who
differ from them
There is an opportunity to learn the
expectations of the hearing world
They can provide new perspective on
certain lessons
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cons
The student may require more attention
than the general education teacher is
able to provide
The students needs may not be met
It could be difficult for the student
socially
The teacher may not be informed
enough to manage the student
effectively
Opportunities for direct instruction may
be restrictive
It can be a difficult learning
environment without an interpreter (A
FAPE right)
Nowell, R., Innes, J. (1997). Educating children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Inclusion (Report No. E557). Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education,
Council for Exceptional Children. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 414675).
Stinson, M., Anita, S. (1999). Considerations in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students in inclusive settings. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Education. 4(3): 163-175 doi:10.1093/deafed/4.3.163
Applications
• Provide preferential seating for the student
– By providing preferential seating to the student, I ensure they have a
stronger chance of following instruction
– The student will be able to maintain eye contact with me, and if they need
to read lips, it will be easier for the student
• Modify Instruction
– When I show videos, I need to make sure there are subtitles or it is closed
captioning
– When I use music, provide lyrics for the student
– Use visual aids when possible
• Utilize available services and resources
– By using the available services – such as an interpreter – it allows for a
greater chance for the student to be successful
Applications continued
• Differentiate Instruction
– Using a variety of instructional strategies
will benefit the student and inform you of
ways in which the student learns more
effectively
– Using
• Communicate
– Be in constant communication with special
education teacher and cooperating teacher
to establish goals
– Have open dialogue with parents to discuss
their expectations as well as mine
– Learn sign language
References
Andrews, S., et al. (1995). Hearing impaired children’s retelling of stories following presentation in whole-class
and individual contexts. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED389145.pdf
Fitzpatrick, E., Angus, D., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I., & Coyle, D. (2008). Parents'
Needs Following Identification of Childhood Hearing Loss. American Journal of Audiology, 17(1), 38-49.
doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2008/005)
Grant, W.D. (1981). Racial attitudes of hearing-impaired adolescents. Journal of Black
Studies. 12(1), 39-51. (JSTOR Document Reproduction Service No. 2784148).
Heward, W.L. (2009). Exceptional children: an introduction to special education. Upper
Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson College Div.
McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. (1984). Parental involvement in the programs of hearing
impaired children: An exploratory study. The Family with Handicapped Memebers, 33 (1), 119-125.
Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584596
Nowell, R., Innes, J. (1997). Educating children who are deaf and hard of hearing:
Inclusion (Report No. E557). Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education,
Council for Exceptional Children. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 414675).
Stinson, M., Anita, S. (1999). Considerations in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing
students in inclusive settings. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Education. 4(3): 163-175 doi:10.1093/deafed/4.3.163
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