book_1_unit_3_Cultural_Shock

advertisement
Book 1
Unit 3
Cultural Shock
Text A The Rotary Youth Exchange Experience:
Cultural Shock
Quit
Contents
1
Background Information & Cultural Notes
2
Lead-in
3
Text Structures
4
Sentence Study
Text A
5
6
Words & Phrases
Key to Exercises
Quit
Background Information & Cultural Notes
Cultural Shock
Reverse culture shock
Rotary Youth Club
Home
Background Information & Cultural Notes
Culture shock is the anxiety, feelings of frustration,
alienation and anger that may occur when a person is
emplaced in a new culture. One of the most common
causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign
country. Culture shock can be described as consisting of
at least one of four distinct phases: Honeymoon stage,
horror stage, adjustment stage, and Home stage. There
is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as
individuals in any society are personally affected by
cultural contrasts differently.
To Be Continued
Home
Back
Background Information & Cultural Notes
Four Stages of Cultural Shock
a. Honeymoon stage
During this period, the differences between the old and
new culture are seen in a romantic light. For example, in
moving to a new country, an individual might love the new
food, the pace of life, and the locals’ habits. During the first
few weeks, most people are fascinated by the new culture.
They associate with nationals who speak their language,
and who are polite to the foreigners. This period is full of
observations and new discoveries. Like most honeymoon
periods, this stage eventually ends.
To Be Continued
Home
Back
Background Information & Cultural Notes
b. Horror Stage
After some time (usually around three months, depending on the
individual), differences between the old and new culture become
apparent and may create anxiety. Excitement may eventually give
way to unpleasant feelings of frustration and anger as one continues
to experience unfavorable events that may be perceived as strange
and offensive to one's cultural attitude. Language barriers, stark
differences in public hygiene, traffic safety, food accessibility and
quality may heighten the sense of disconnection from the
surroundings.
To Be Continued
Home
Back
Background Information & Cultural Notes
c. Adjustment Stage
Again, after some time (usually 6 to 12 months), one grows
accustomed to the new culture and develops routines. One knows
what to expect in most situations and the host country no longer feels
all that new. One becomes concerned with basic living again, and
things become more “normal”. One starts to develop problemsolving skills for dealing with the culture and begins to accept the
culture’s ways with a positive attitude. The culture begins to make
sense, and negative reactions and responses to the culture are reduced.
To Be Continued
Home
Back
Background Information & Cultural Notes
d. Home Stage
In the home stage assignees are able to participate fully and
comfortably in the host culture. This does not mean total
conversion; people often keep many traits from their earlier
culture, such as accents and languages. It is often referred
to as the biculturalism stage.
Home
Back
Background Information & Cultural Notes
Reverse culture shock
Reverse Culture Shock (a.k.a. “Re-entry Shock”, or “own
culture shock”) may take place — returning to one's home
culture after growing accustomed to a new one can produce the
same effects as described above. This results from the
psychosomatic (身心失调的)and psychological consequences of
the readjustment process to the primary culture. The affected
person often finds this more surprising and difficult to deal with
than the original culture shock.
Home
Back
Rotary Youth Club
Rotary Youth Club (RYC) is a Rotary
international student exchange program for
students. Since 1929, Rotary International has sent
young people around the globe to experience new
cultures. Currently, about 9,000 students are
sponsored by Rotary clubs every year.
Lead-in
Question 1
Can you list some symptoms of cultural shock?
Home
Lead-in
Question 1
Can you list some symptoms of cultural shock?
• Sadness, loneliness, melancholy ['melənkəli] n. 忧郁;悲哀;愁思
• Preoccupation with health
• Aches, pains, and allergies
• Insomnia, desire to sleep too much or too little
• Changes in temperament, depression, feeling vulnerable, feeling
powerless
• Anger, irritability, resentment, unwillingness to interact with
others
• Identifying with the old culture or idealizing the old country
Home
Lead-in
Question 2
How to fight cultural shock?
Home
Lead-in
Question 2
How to fight cultural shock?
• Don’t forget the good things you already have!
• Remember, there are always resources that you can use.
• Be patient, the act of immigrating is a process of adaptation to
new situations. It is going to take time.
• Learn to be constructive. If you encounter an unfavorable
environment, don't put yourself in that position again. Be easy on
yourself.
• Don’t try too hard.
• Learn to include a regular form of physical activity in your
routine. This will help combat the sadness and loneliness in a
constructive manner. Exercise, swim, take an aerobics class, etc.
Home
Text Structure
Part I. The explanation of culture shock
(Para. 1-2)
1. A rather profound reaction to fairly significant
other differences, in the way people view the world, in
the way they think and what they value.
2. While culture shock can be very uncomfortable,
there is nothing wrong with it, or with the person
experiencing it.
3. Culture shock usually involves at least four stages.
Home
Text Structure
Part II: The four stages of culture shock.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(Para.3)
Excitement and Enthusiasm. (Excitement and enthusiasm of seeing
and doing new and different things, meeting new people; or of
continuing to have new experiences.)
Irritability. (This occurs when the initial excitement wears off and real
differences become evident.)
Adaptation. (This is the longest, most difficult and most rewarding
stage. This is when students learn to accept that they will have to adapt
if they are going to be successful in their host culture.)
Biculturalism. (This stage comes very near the end of the stay, or
sometimes doesn’t emerge until the students return to their native
countries.)
Home
Text Structure
Part III: Culture Shock Cycle (the emotional ups and downs when students
experience the various stages of adjustment to culture shock.) (Para.4-8)
1. The first few months coincide with the initial excitement stage. This peaks
when the excitement or the “honeymoon” is over. (Para. 4-5)
2. The lowest point typically comes at about four months. (Para. 6)
3. Gradual adjustment and adaptation when the students really learn the
cultural tools necessary to function competently in the host culture. (Para.7)
4. This final stage comes around the time of returning home, another plunge
into a period of feeling low. (reverse culture shock) (Para. 8)
Home
Text Structure
Part IV: The journey of culture shock can be described as moving from
Ethnocentrism to Ethnorelativism.
(Para.9-11)
1.
All cultures are ethnocentric. They teach their members that their way
is the right, natural and preferred way of doing things. (Para. 9)
2.
Four stages of developing competence at anything: Unconscious
Incompetence (don’t know that we don’t know how to do it);
Conscious Incompetence (be aware that we are doing something
wrong, but just may not have the skills of doing it right). (Para. 10)
3.
Biculturalism. When exchange students get to unconscious
competence, they have gotten to the bicultural stage of adjustment to
culture shock. (Para. 11)
Home
Sentence Study
1 We may think of it as the temporary disorientation
that comes from being exposed to a different
language, different customs, food, etc. (Para.1)
expose sb/sth/yourself ( to …):
to put sb/sth/ in a place or
situation where they are not
protected from sth harmful or
unpleasant 使面临,使遭受(危
险或不快)
Example:
1) Don’t expose babies to strong
sunlight.
不要让婴儿受到强烈的阳光照射。
expose sb to sth : to let sb. find out
about sth. by giving them experience of
it or showing them what it is like 使接
触;使体验
Example:
1) 我们想让孩子受到尽可能多的艺术和
文化熏陶。
We want to expose our kids to as much
art and culture as possible.
To Be Continued
Home
Sentence Study
1
译文:
我们可以将文化冲击看做由于接触不同语言、文化、饮
食等引起的暂时的迷茫。
Home
Sentence Study
2 The final stage, shown as coming around the time of
returning home, can involve another plunge into a
period of feeling low. (Para.8)
plunge into: to experience sth unpleasant 经历,陷入(不快的事)
Example:
1)The country plunged deeper into recession.
那个国家进一步陷入经济萧条之中。
2) The boy took off his clothes and plunged into the swimming pool.
男孩脱下衣服,跳入游泳池
To Be Continued
Home
Sentence Study
2
译文:
文化冲击的最后阶段出现在即将回国时,可能会经历另一
阶段的情绪低落。
Home
Sentence Study
3 Only after experiencing reverse culture can
students really appreciate the extent to which
they have changed, and, as a result, the extent to
which they have become truly bicultural. (Para.8)
Only + 状语(从句) 放在句首,句子用倒装语序。
Example:
1) Only in Paris do you find bars like this.
2) Only if these conditions are fulfilled can the application proceed
to the next stage.
To Be Continued
Home
Sentence Study
3
译文:
只有在体验了不同的文化之后,学生们才意识到他们已经
发生变化的程度。因此,他们已经接受两种不同文化。
Home
New Words & Expressions
New Words
Expressions
1.
adapt
1. wear off
2.
basis
2. coincide with
3.
immerse
3. at the prospect of
4.
prominent
5.
confront
6.
competent
7.
breeze
Home
New Words
Para. 1, Line 7
1. adapt
1) adapt sth (for sth) : to change sth. in order to make it suitable for a
new use or situation使适应,使适合(新用途、新情况)
1. 这些工具多数已经过特别改装,供残疾人使用。
Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled
people.
2. 这些式样可以修改,以适应各人不同爱好。
These styles can be adapted to suit individual tastes.
To Be Continued
Back
New Words
2) adapt (yourself) (to sth):
to change your behavior in order to
deal more successfully with a new
situation. 适应(新情况)
1. 我们不得不迅速适应了新制度。
We have had to adapt quickly to the
new system.
3) adapt sth (for sth) (from sth):
to change a book or play so that it
can be made into a play,
film/movie, television program,
etc. 改写,改编
1. 她的长篇小说中有三部已改编
成电视节目。
2. 他过了好一阵子才适应了新环境。 Three of her novels have been
adapted for television.
It took him a while to adapt himself
to his new surroundings.
Back
New Words
Para. 1, Line 4
2. basis
1) on the basis: the reason why people take a particular action缘由,原因
1.她因具备适当资格、想法对路而被选担任该工作。
She was chosen for the job on the basis of her qualification and ideas.
2. 有些录像带因暴力镜头过多而被查封。
Some videos have been banned on the basis that they are too violent.
To Be Continued
Back
New Words
2) on a … basis:
3) basis: the important facts, ideas of
the way things are organized or
arranged基准;准则;方式
events that support sth and that it can
develop from基础;要素;基点
1. on a regular/permanent/parttime/temporary basis
1. 美满婚姻的基础是信赖。
以定期/永久/兼职/临时性的方法
2. on a daily/day-to-day/weekly
basis
按每天/每日/每周一次的标准
The basis of a good marriage is trust.
2. 这篇文章将作为我们讨论的基础。
The article will form the basis for our
discussion.
3. This theory seems to have no basis in
fact.
这一理论似乎没有实际的根据。
Back
New Words
Para. 3, Line 2
1) immerse sb/sth into
a liquid so that they
or it are completely
covered
3. immerse
2) immerse yourself/sb in sth: become
or make sb. completely involved in sth.
1.她埋头工作。
She immersed herself in her work.
浸没于
2.克莱尔和菲尔在角落里深谈。
1. 他把脚浸在水里。
Clare and Phi were immersed in
conversation in the corner
He immersed his feet in
water.
3. 他兄弟负债累累。
His brother was immersed in debts.
Back
New Words
Para. 3, Line 6
4. prominent
prominent adj.
1) easily seen显眼的;显著的;突出的
1. 教堂的尖塔曾经是此地景观的重要特点。
The church tower was a prominent feature in the landscape
2. 这则报道刊登在头版的显著位置。
The story was given a prominent position on the front page.
To Be Continued
Back
New Words
2) adj.
3) adj:
sticking out from sth突起的,
凸起的
important or well known重要的;杰
出的;著名的
1. 萨利有一个凸出的高鼻子。
Sally has a prominent nose.
1)爱因斯坦是一位卓越的科学家 。
Einstein was a prominent scientist.
2. 她骨瘦如柴的身材又细又瘦,
骨骼突出的。
2) 他在这次运动中发挥了重要作用。
She is having a lean, gaunt
frame with prominent bones.
He played a prominent part in the
campaign.
3. 突出的颧骨/牙齿
prominent cheekbones/teeth
Back
New Words
Para. 3, Line 11
5. wear of
wear off: to gradually disappear or stop逐渐消失(停止);损耗
1. 这麻醉药品的作用将很快消失。
The effect of the drug will soon wear off.
2. 新搬到一个市镇去的高兴劲儿不久就会消失。
The excitement of moving to a new town will soon wear off
3. 恐怕“戒指”的镀金层不久就会磨掉。
I’m afraid the gilt of the ring will wear off before long.
Back
New Words
Para. 3, Line 16
6. confront
1) be confronted with: to have sth in
front of you that you have to deal with or
react to 面对(某事物)
1. 如果你要面对你最大的恐惧,你会怎
么做?
What would you do if you had to be
confronted with your biggest fear?
2) confront sb with sth: to make
sb. face or deal with an unpleasant
or difficult person or situation使面
对,使面临,使对付(令人不快的
人、场合)
1)他要她在事业和他们两人关系之间作
出抉择。
2. 大多数人遇见马时都会轻松地拍拍它。
He confronted her with a choice
Most people when confronted with a
between her career or their relationship.
horse will pat it.
2)我将拿证据和他当面对质。
I’ll confront him with the evidence.
Back
New Words
Para. 3, Line 32
7. competent
1) adj. 有能力的,胜任的,称职
的
2) adj. having the power to decide
sth. 有决定权的
1. 马克证明了自己是一个很能干
的经理。
Mark proved to be a very
competent manager.
1. 案件已提交给有决定权的机构
处理。
The case was referred to a
competent authority.
2. 要确保这家公司有能力完成这
项工作。
Make sure the firm is competent
to carry out the work.
Back
New Words
Para. 6, Line 3
8. coincide with
coincide [,kəuin'said] with
1) (of two or more events) to take place at the same time同时发生
1. 这次示威活动事先作了精心安排,正好在首相访问时进行。
The demonstration had been carefully stage-managed to coincide with the
Prime Minister’s visit.
2. 那次罢工选择在召开政党大会的同一时间举行。
The strike was timed to coincide with the party conference.
To Be Continued
Back
New Words
2) (of ideas, opinions, etc) to be the same or very similar相同;
相符;极为相似
1) 我的宗教信仰跟你的不一样
My religious beliefs don’t coincide with yours.
2) 一个人的外貌和他的品质常常不一致。
A person’s appearance doesn’t often coincide with his quality.
Back
New Words
Para. 8, Line 2
9. at the prospect of
at the prospect of:
at the thought of , at the thinking of想到要
1)她对即将能去巴黎旅行一事高兴万分。
She rejoiced at the prospect of the Paris trip.
2) 她想到要在大庭广众之中讲话心里就发毛。
She quailed at the prospect of addressing such a large crowd.
Back
New Words
Para. 10, Line 7
10. breeze
breeze v. 1) to move in a cheerful and
confident way轻松而自信地走
1)她一阵风似的飘然进来,要求我帮她。
She just breezed in and asked me to help.
2) 海伦轻盈地走进了起居室。
2) breeze through: to do sth
successfully and easily 轻松通过
(完成)
1)他轻松顺利地通过了这些测试。
He breezed through the tests.
Helen breezed into the sitting room.
Back
Key to Exercises
1. Reading Comprehension
a. Choose the sentences that best express the meaning of the statement
from the text.
(1) B (2)B (3) A (4) C (5) A
Home
Key to Exercises
b. Fill in the blanks with the information you have learned in the text.
(1) usually a rather profound reaction to fairly significant other
differences; in the way people view the world, in the way they think
and what they value; travelers from affected regions who showed signs
of flu were quarantined; experience culture shock at a superficial level.
(2) Excitement and Enthusiasm. Irritability, Adaptation.
Biculturalism: from ethnocentrism to enthnorelativism
and
(3) that people are adjusting when they, without thinking, are doing
things which they never thought they could become comfortable with.
(4) the high and low feelings that students experience as they go through
the various stages of adjustment to culture shock; double negative of
culture shock and homesickness.
(5) Unconscious Incompetence, Conscious Incompetence. conscious
Competence, Unconscious Competence; When they get to the last stage,
they have developed an effective ethnorelative world view.
Home
Key to Exercises
2.Vocabulary
a.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words or phrases you have
learned in the text.
(1) Ethnocentrism
(2) at the prospect of
(3) well being
(4)competence
(5) irritability
(6) disorientation
(7)incompetence
(8) be confronted with
(9)frustration
(10) verily
Home
Key to Exercises
2.Vocabulary
b. Choose the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined one.
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) B
(6) D (7) A (8) C (9) A (10) D
Home
Key to Exercises
3. Cloze
choose an appropriate word from the following list to fill in each of the following
blanks. Each word can be used only once. Change the form where necessary.
(1)but
(2) discomfort (3) new
(5) For example (6) because
(7) how
(4) what
(8) unfamiliar
(9) degree
(10) although (11)Usually (12) identify
(13) better
(14) First
(15) common (16) In addition
(17) When
(18) who
(19) also
(20) that
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English:
Translate the following sentences into English.
(1) Confucianism has a long history and a profound
influence on China's politics, ideology, science,
culture and art; it is an important part of traditional
Chinese culture.
(2) In fact, in producing the product, our production
practices in the past and in the future coincide
with the requirements of the WTO.
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English:
Translate the following sentences into English.
(3) Religious and cultural diversity in a globalizing
world needs to be used as a promotion of (to
promote) social justice, tolerance and understanding,
as well as international peace and security, and not
as a rationale for a new ideological and political
confrontation.
(4) The initial period of marriage involves more than
accommodating the presence and habits of another
person.
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English
Translate the following sentences into English.
(5) Whether you’ve used the software before or not,
you may already be familiar with some of its features,
but the new version represents a major milestone in
the progression of its development.
(6) By default, when you delete files on most
Windows systems the files are not really deleted, they
are instead moved into the Recycle Bin, so they still
take up disk space.
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English
Translate the following sentences into English.
(7) The effect of the pain-killer will naturally wear
off within a few hours, but its advantage is that it
has few side effects.
(8) Ecological civilization is the only way to global
sustainable development, and is the best approach to
saving the earth’s ecosystem, and the inevitable
choice of human development.
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English
Translate the following paragraph into English.
It’s my pleasure to write this column about international
students at an American business school, from the perspective of
an American. Though Yale, and all other top schools, focus on
granting a ‘global’ MBA experience, the style of instruction, the
classroom environment, and the nuances of school culture are
very much American. In speaking to my classmates who come
from other countries, particularly China, it seems that three key
pillars of the U. S. education experience actually come as a major
culture shock:
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
a. Chinese to English
Translate the following paragraph into English.
loud and often boisterous in-class discussion; the
reliance on teamwork to complete tasks; and the
unofficial importance of socializing to build a network
within the class. For those who have grown up in the
American school system, conforming to these three
attributes happens almost subconsciously., Thinking that
others may find them surprising or difficult to tackle
reveals the unintended limits of my own world view.
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
b. English to Chinese
Translate the following paragraph into Chinese.
尽管每个学生的经历是不同的,但大多数参加一年期项目的
交换生经历着几乎相同的适应文化冲击的过程。必须指出的
是,虽然文化冲击会令人感到不舒服,但这并不代表着它本
身有什么错,也不代表着经受其中的人有什么错。相当普遍
的情况是:学生们在适应文化冲击的过程中,新的问题层出
不穷,但这对他们而言也是一种有价值的经历,许多人说,
只有当经历了深层次的文化冲击,才是最有价值的交换 。
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
b. English to Chinese
Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.
(1)从问候到饮食,稍不留神就会出差错,不仅让自己难堪,
还有可能冒犯东道主。
(2)在地中海国家,如果你和别人交谈时没有碰对方的手臂,
或见面问候时没和对方亲吻拥抱,别人会认为你不热情。在
韩国,如果你从后面拍不是家庭成员或者好朋友的人,你会
让对方感到不舒服。
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
4. Translation
b. English to Chinese
Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.
(3)到伦敦人家里参加宴会时脱掉鞋子,女主人会认为你
不文明,但去亚洲、夏威夷或太平洋群岛的居民家中不脱鞋
却被认为失礼。
(4)许多文化依然推崇传统的进食方式——用手吃。在这
种情况下,食物往往是众人一起分享的,因此饭前洗手很重
要,而且要遵守用右手吃东西的习俗,左手往往有其他用途。
(5)你是左撇子吗?还是努力让自己的双手都灵巧吧——
在这些文化里,即使是左撇子的孩子也被教会用右手吃饭—
—或者至少吃饭前向同伴解释一下。
Home
Key to Exercises
5. Writing
Write an essay in English with 150 word at least under the title below.
a.写作技巧:速开思路三步骤:
1. 头脑风暴(brain-storming)
快速搜索大脑内关于这一话题的任何信息,包括:实践经历;阅读经历;所见
所闻;想象内容等。拓展、深化、细化提示,将其转化为丰富合理的内容。
2. 罗列(listing)
将所搜索到的信息简要列出。多方位、多角度考虑问题。
3. 聚合(clustering)
将与主题相关信息聚合在一起,在合情合理的前提下联想丰富,放开手脚,使
内容丰满、多姿多彩。把握好自由度和局限性的关系。构思大胆而不离谱。删
除不可利用信息。
Home
Key to Exercises
5. Writing
Write an essay in English with 150 word at least under the title below.
b. 写作实践
Giving Advice
Direction:
Read the following words from a freshman who is talking about a problem.
Write a passage giving advice to him. Start with the sentence “To solve your
problem you should pay more attention to your communication skills.”
“When I go to English corner, I feel nervous. Those fluent Chinese speakers
make me nervous; native speakers make me nervous; even greetings from
others make me nervous. Everything there makes me nervous.”
Home
Key to Exercises
To solve your problem, you should pay more attention to your communication
skills. When you go to English corner, a brand new experience, it’s quite
natural for you to feel constrained and nervous. However, what you should do
is to adapt to the new environment as soon as possible.
Here, I would like to offer you some useful tips.
The first tip is to relax and to be open-minded. Don’t be too reserved. Say “Hi”
to people with whom you want to talk, and then introduce yourself to them.
However, you may find that you have nothing to say after the self-introduction,
and people around you also become silent. What should you do then?
So, the second tip is to prepare some topics in advance. When choosing topics,
you must bear in mind that the topics you select should be interesting and
familiar to other people.
To Be Continued
Home
Key to Exercises
Thirdly, body language, including eye contact, gestures, postures and facial
expressions, can be a good helper. Try to guess the meaning from nonverbal
language. And you may also use body language to make yourself understood
when your limited vocabulary cannot convey your ideas clearly.
Last but not least, use a sense of humor in communication. It is unavoidable to
have some misunderstanding and tension with others, but humor can lighten
the touchy situation effectively.
With the four tips mentioned above, you will surely overcome your
nervousness in English corner. Why not have a try?
Home
Text B Understanding Interpersonal
Relationships in the Chinese Context
Key to Exercises
a. Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases given below.
Change the form where necessary.
(1) transgression (2) wicket
(4) infringement (5) avid
(7) ubiquitous
(8) substantiate
(10) prerequisite
(3) disconcerting
(6) episode
(9) intelligible
Text B Understanding Interpersonal
Relationships in the Chinese Context
b. Complete the sentences with the information
given in the text.
1. will differ; as universal as
2. sprouting a few whiskers
3. than it does for Canadians
4. was accustomed to
5. a transgressor
6. of birth; periods of time
7. economic freedom; in perception; connotes
8. be matters; compose a list
9. desertification; rising ocean levels; put great strain on
10. less challenging; opting for; deprive ourselves of
Text B Understanding Interpersonal
Relationships in the Chinese Context
c. Decide whether the statement is TURE or FALSE
according to the text.
(1)T (2) F (3) T (4) T (5) F
(6) F (7) F (8) T (9) T (10) T
THANK YOU!
Quit
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards