file - Siuslaw School District

advertisement
Presented by
Ginger Kowalko
Educational Consultant
Lori Rae Smith
Director, Student Achievement
Bethel School District
Outcomes
Participants will…
 receive a brief review of last session
 receive in depth instruction in
vocabulary techniques that have broad
application to expository text
 be able to apply these techniques in the
classroom
Secondary Literacy
Ideally, secondary literacy would focus solely
on “. . . the core of reading: comprehension,
learning while reading, reading in the content
areas, and reading in the service of secondary
or higher education, of employability, of
citizenship.”
Reading Next, 2004, p. 1
“. . . as many as one out of every ten
adolescents has serious difficulties in
identifying words.”
Curtis and Longo, 1999.
Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21st Century, p. 8
Reading Activity
Accuracy
• Independent – 98% to 100%
• Instructional – 95% to 98%
• Frustrational – Below 95%
• To be successful on Oregon’s Reading &
Literature Assessment, students needed to be
at the independent level
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
7
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
8
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
9
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
10
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
11
Comprehension Requires
California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual
Word Recognition
Speed & Accuracy
Language Comprehension
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology,
semantics, pragmatics
Knowledge of Text Structures
Narration, exposition, poetry, other
Comprehension Strategies
Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up”
strategies, coping with task requirements
Background Knowledge
Content and language
Motivation and Attention
Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending
12
What does the research say?
TWO PRONG APPROACH
READING
INSTRUCTION
CONTENT
LITERACY
A comprehensive literacy solution
for middle and high schools
Reading teachers must teach them basic and advanced
reading skills as intensively and skillfully as the school
can manage.
Content area teachers must be part of the solution
Torgesen 2006
Academic Content Competence:
Every Student Succeeding (ACCESS)
• Provide all students access
to the content being taught
• Ensure opportunity to
reinforce content literacy
and reading skills
• Increase the amount
students receive in reading
instruction without taking
away from content
ACCESS Toolkit
•
•
•
•
•
•
Academic
Content
Competence:
Every
Student
Succeeding
Access for ALL Students
• Special Education
• English Language Learners
• Striving Readers
• At-Risk Learners
ACCESS
“All students, regardless of their personal
characteristics, backgrounds, or physical
challenges, must have opportunities to study – and
support to learn […]. Equity does not mean that
every student should receive identical instruction;
instead, it demands that reasonable and
appropriate accommodations be made as needed
to promote access and attainment for all
students.”
EDThoughts: What We Know About Mathematics Teaching and Learning 2002 McRel
A Framework Based on Research
Combines research on:
• Before/During/After Reading Strategies
• Big Ideas of Reading
–
–
–
–
Decoding (phonemic awareness and phonics)
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
New Word Meanings
Materials
•A List of Key Terms or Vocabulary Words From the Lesson
•An Overhead Transparency of the New Word Meanings Template
•A Copy of the New Word Meanings Template for Each Student
Steps:
1.Identify 4 or 5 vocabulary words or key terms from the lesson and write them on the overhead transparency or on the board.
2. Direct students to read the words and then write them in the boxes on the left side of their paper.
3. Direct students to write these words in the boxes on the left side of their paper.
4. Define and explain the key terms and help students list the critical attributes of the word in the middle box.
5. Teacher asks class to suggest a sentence, an example, or a picture that will represent the word. After discussing ideas, the class
completes the remaining box with their representation of the word.
6.Students should keep their “New Word Meanings” pages in a binder. Words from previous lessons should be reviewed periodically.
Strand:
Using Content Vocabulary
Strategy:
Developing Word Power
When:
Before the Lesson
Research Basis: By using content vocabulary, students build necessary background knowledge, connect this new learning to prior
knowledge, and increase the frequency of practice of the new vocabulary in rich context.
ACCESS Toolkit techniques feature
1. Explicit Instruction which:
•
•
•
•
is teacher directed
relies on clear explanations
guides student use (“I do it, we do it, you do it”)
precedes application activities
2. Active Engagement which:
• requires written responses and/or oral responses
(individual, choral and/or with a partner)
Transportable & Transparent
• Transportable = using strategies learned in
one class to comprehend in another
• Transparent = strategies that become part of a
student’s thinking and automatically applied
• “When strategies are transportable and
transparent, students focus more on the
content being taught than on how they are
being taught.”
Ivy & Fisher, Creating Literacy Rich Schools for Adolescents, ASCD, 2006
“No comprehension strategies are powerful
enough to compensate for not being able to
read the words within a text.”
Archer, Gleason, Vachon, 2003
Decoding
Successful Readers
• Read multisyllabic words
and use strategies to figure
out unknown words
• Make connections between
letter patterns and sounds
and use this understanding
to read words
• Break unknown words into
syllables during reading
• Use word analysis strategies
to break difficult or long
words into meaningful parts
such as inflectional endings,
prefixes, suffixes, and roots
Struggling Readers
• May read single-syllable
words effortlessly but have
difficulty decoding longer
multisyllabic words
• May lack knowledge of the
ways in which sounds map
to print
• Have difficulty breaking
words into syllables
• Often do not use word
analysis strategies to break
words into syllables
From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers,
A Practice Brief, Center on Instruction, 2008
Decoding Techniques
• Working With Words
• Working with Word Families
Fluency
Accuracy
Rate
Expression
Fluency
Successful Readers
• Read 100-160 words per
minute (at the middle school
level) depending on the nature
and difficulty of the text
• Decode words accurately and
automatically
• Group words into meaningful
chunks and phrases
• Read with expression
• Combine multiple tasks while
reading (e.g., decoding,
phrasing, understanding and
interpreting)
Struggling Readers
• Read slowly and laboriously
• May continue to struggle with
decoding or may decode
correctly but slowly
• May not pause at punctuation
or recognize phrases
• Often lack voice or articulation
of emotion while reading
• May lack proficiency in
individual skills that result in
dysfluent reading and limit
comprehension
From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers, A Practice Brief,
Center on Instruction, 2008
Fluency Techniques
• Cloze Reading
• Choral Reading
Vocabulary
The
knowledge
of words
and word
meanings.
Vocabulary
Successful Readers
• Are exposed to a breadth of
vocabulary words in conversations
and print at home and at school from
a very early age
• Have word consciousness
• Understand most words when they
are reading (at least 90%) and can
make sense of unknown words to
build their vocabulary knowledge
• Learn words incrementally, through
multiple exposures to new words
• Have content-specific prior
knowledge that helps them
understand how words are used in a
particular context
Struggling Readers
• Have limited exposure to new words
• May not enjoy reading, and therefore
do not select reading as an
independent activity
• May lack word consciousness,
including an awareness of the
complex and varied nature of words
in written and oral language
• Are unable to comprehend
consistently what they read or to
learn new words from reading
• Lack the variety of experiences and
exposures necessary to gain deep
understanding of new words
• Often have limited content-specific
prior knowledge that is insufficient to
support word learning
From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers, A Practice Brief, Center on
Instruction, 2008
VOCABULARY
Can be acquired incidentally via:
– Oral language experience
– Wide reading
• Volume of words read
• Frequency of new/unfamiliar words read
Can be acquired intentionally via:
– Explicit instruction
• Specific word instruction
• Word learning strategies
From Vocabulary Handbook, Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006
VARIATION IN AMOUNT OF INDEPENDENT
READING
%
98
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
2
Independent Reading
Minutes Per Day
65.5
21.1
14.2
9.6
6.5
4.6
3.2
1.3
0.7
0.1
0.0
Words Read
Per Year
4,358,000
1,823,000
1,146,000
622,000
432,000
282,000
200,000
106,000
21,000
8,000
0
Adapted from Anderson, Wilson and Fielding (1988)
The “Matthew Effect”
The rich get richer and the poor get
poorer.
Stanovich, K.E., 1986
FREQUENCY OF
NEW/UNFAMILIAR WORDS
SOURCE
RARE WORDS PER
1000 WORDS
Abstracts of scientific articles
128
Newspapers
68.3
Popular Magazines
65.7
Comic Books
53.5
Adult Books
52.7
Children’s Books
30.9
Cartoon Shows
30.8
Courtroom expert witness testimony
28.4
Prime-time adult TV shows
22.7
Prime-time children’s TV shows
20.2
Conversations of college graduates to
friends or spouses
17.3
Preschool books
16.3
Hayes & Ahrens (1998)
VOCABULARY
Can be acquired incidentally via:
– Oral language experience
– Wide reading
• Volume of words read
• Frequency of new/unfamiliar words read
Can be acquired intentionally via:
– Explicit instruction
• Specific word instruction
• Word learning strategies
From Vocabulary Handbook, Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006
The Three Tier System
• Tier One
– Basic Words (the, and, food)
• Tier Two
– Words which occur frequently in language, central
to comprehension (balcony, murmur, splendid)
• Tier Three
– Low frequency “specialized” words (anthracite,
mycelium, shoal)
Beck & McKeown (1985)
Alexander Graham Bell is known as the
inventor of the telephone. His assistant was
named Thomas A. Watson. Together, Bell and
Watson discovered how sound, including
speech, could be transmitted through wires,
and Bell received a patent for such a device.
In 1876, the telephone was officially invented
and the first telephone company was founded
on July 9, 1877.
The road that led to Treegap had been trod
out long before by a herd of cows who were,
to say the least, relaxed. It wandered along in
curves and easy angles, swayed off and up in a
pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill,
ambled down again between fringes of beehung clover, and then cut sideways across the
meadow.
From Tuck Everlasting
The road that led to Treegap had been trod
out long before by a herd of cows who were,
to say the least, relaxed. It wandered along in
curves and easy angles, swayed off and up in a
pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill,
ambled down again between fringes of beehung clover, and then cut sideways across the
meadow.
From Tuck Everlasting
What is a Plant?
Plants are members of the kingdom Plantae.
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have
cell walls made of cellulose. They develop
from multicellular embryos and carry out
photosynthesis using green pigments
chlorophyll a and b. Plants include trees,
shrubs, and grasses as well as other organisms
such as mosses and ferns.
Selection of vocabulary words
• Big idea words related to lesson concepts (“characterization”, “flashback”)
• “Academic Toolkit” or “Mortar” words that are high frequency across
disciplines (“compare”, “chronology”)
• “Disciplinary Toolkit” or “Brick” words that are high frequency within
disciplines (“plot”, “idioms”)
• Words to engage in literate discourse regarding a topic (relevant to theme,
issues – especially with narrative text)
Kevin Feldman, Ed.D. “Developing Content Literacy in Mixed Ability Secondary Classrooms, Grades 4-12
Presented at SOPRIS West Oregon Coast Summer Institute, 2006.
Vocabulary List Sources
• Marzano, Robert J., Building Background
Knowledge for Academic Achievement, 2004
• Coxhead, Averil,
http://language.massey.ac.nz/staff/awl/index.
shtml
The “Bottom Line” Rationale for DIRECTLY
Teaching Vocabulary
“Given the importance of academic background
knowledge, and the fact that vocabulary is such an
essential aspect of it, one of the most crucial services
that teachers can provide, particularly for students
who do not come from academically advantaged
backgrounds, is systematic instruction in important
academic terms.”
Marzano & Pickering, 2005
Vocabulary Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power Words
New Word Meanings
Quick Words
Semantic Feature Analysis
Original Sentences
Yes/No/Why
Completion Activity
3 Minute Reflection
• Minute 1: Summarize the key points of today’s
presentation.
• Minute 2: Explain how these key points added
to your thinking.
• Minute 3: Pose questions about points that
require clarification.
Next Steps
• Session 3 (February 5)
– Brief Review
– Comprehension Techniques
– Putting it all together
Resources
• Reading Next, Alliance for Excellent Education,
www.all4ed.org
• Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents, A Guidance
Document from the Center on Instruction,
www.centeroninstruction.org
• Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and
Intervention Practices, http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc
51
Download
Related flashcards

Neuroscience

42 cards

Neuroscience

66 cards

Neurophysiology

58 cards

Brain disorders

35 cards

Sleep disorders

43 cards

Create Flashcards