Cummins

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Ana Medina
April 15, 2010
Objectives
Learn key concepts and terms about the
interdependence theory
Learn about Jim Cummins’ contribution to the
language acquisition theory
Learn about the implications of Cummins’ ideas on
bilingual education
2
Jim Cummins
 Jim Cummins received his
Ph.D. in 1974 from the
University of Alberta in
educational psychology.
 He is currently a professor
in the Department of
Curriculum, Teaching,
Learning in the Ontario
Institute for Studies in
Education of the University
of Toronto. Link to his
page
3
HONOURS:
 May 1997
Doctorate in Humane Letters
(honorary) Bank Street College
of Education, New York.
 1990
English-Speaking Union's Duke
of Edinburgh English Language
Book Competition (highly
commended) The development of
second language proficiency. (B.
Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, M.
Swain [Eds.], Cambridge
University Press, 1990).
4
The Linguistic Interdependence
Theory/ The “Iceberg” Model
To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in
promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this
proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate
exposure to Ly (in school and environment) and
adequate motivation to learn Ly
5
The Iceberg Model Diagram
6
Dimensions of Language
BICS – Basic Intrapersonal Communicative Skills
CALP – Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
CUP – Common Underlying Proficiency
7
Four Quadrants Model
8
Types of Bilingualism
Balanced bilingual - highly developed in two
languages
Dominant bilingual - partially developed in only
one language
Double limited bilingual - limited in two languages
9
Types of Bilingualism
Auditory comprehensive style bilingual - has
listening comprehension, but doesn’t have the skill to
express himself orally, a passive bilingual
Conversational style bilingual - can speak, but
cannot read or write
Reading and writing style bilingual - cannot
converse, but can read and write
10
Excel Project
11
STOP!!!
What does
CUP stand
for?
12
The Study
Is the transfer of L1 to L2 effective if the
child has one bilingual parent, two
bilingual parents, or none? Are there
any other factors?
13
Research Study…
 What is the role of the parent in a child’s second
language acquisition?
 How quickly can a child that has not gone to school
learn simple vocabulary in a second language?
 Is there a negative or positive effect on the child’s first
language?
 Does the environment matter for child?
14
Hypothesis…
The child with one bilingual parent will be able to have
to transfer L1 information to L2 because there is
adequate exposure. The child with monolingual
parents will not be able to respond to L2. The child
with two bilingual parents would be a satisfactory job
of knowing L1 and L2.
15
Settings
The study was done in
the living room of the
caretaker. The children
are between the ages of 3
to 4 years old. Two are
going to start Pre-K in
August.
Limitations
Number of children –
only 4 children
Time
16
Research Method
 Day #1 - I pointed to objects around the living room and
I asked, “¿Que es esto?”
The toddler would either respond or not respond/ say I
do not know, indicating they did not know the word.
 Day #2 – I pointed to objects around the living room and
I asked, “What is this?”
The toddler would either respond or not respond/ say I
do not know, indicating they did not know the word.
17
Scoring
Word
television
sofa
remote control
diaper
lamp
door
cross
car
book
flower
glasses
cheese
mom
dad
jacket
bird
hand
picture
water
juice
milk
cup
baby
cat
dog
Total
Isabela
English
y
n
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
n
y
y
y
n
n
n
n
y
n
y
n
y
n
y
15
age:3
Spanish
n
n
y
y
n
y
n
n
n
n
n
y
y
n
n
n
n
n
n
y
n
n
n
y
y
8
Andres
English
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
25
age: 4
Spanish
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
n
y
y
n
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
25
Vanessa
English
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
25
age: 4
Spanish
n
n
n
y
n
y
y
n
n
n
n
n
y
y
n
n
n
n
n
n
y
n
y
n
n
7
Mark
English
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
25
age:3
Spanish
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
y
y
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
2
18
Evaluation
Isabela
English
25 words
in total
15
age:3
Spanish
8
Andres
English
25
age: 4
Spanish
25
Vanessa age: 4
English Spanish
25
7
Mark
English
25
age:3
Spanish
2
19
Was Cummins Right?
YES, Cummins noted that instruction in L1 needs to be
effective and the child needs to have adequate
exposure and motivation for instruction in L2.
Even though Mark is exposed to L2 (Spanish), there is
not enough exposure and his L1 is limited, therefore he
is not able to transfer L1 skills to L2.
Isabela has only one bilingual parent but at her young
age, she is display adequate proficiency for a child in
both Spanish and English.
20
 Vanessa also has one bilingual parent and displays a
limited proficiency in L1. She knew most of the
vocabulary words in her L2 (English). There is a
negative effect on her L1.
 Andres was able to transfer words from L1 to L2. Since
he has two bilingual parents, there is more than an
adequate exposure to both L1 and L2.
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Implications for Bilingual Students
 In order for children to have a balanced bilingualism,
the child needs a sufficient development of BICS and
then can have a further development of CALP usually
when entering school.
 Just because a child develops BICS, it does not mean
that a student can have academic success.
22
So…Nature or Nurture?
Nature
Nurture
23
24
Bibliography
C. Baker & N. H. Hornberger, eds. An introductory reader to the writings of Jim
Cummins. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, 2001.
Cummins, Jim. “BICS and CALP.” Webpage. 1999-2003. 1 April 2010.
http://www.iteachilearn.com/cummins/bicscalp.html
Cummins, Jim. Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the
crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, 2000.
Cummins, Jim. Bilingual Education and Special Education: Issues in Assessment
and Pedagogy. San Diego: College Hill, 1984.
Haynes, Judie. “Explaining BICS and CALP.” 2007. 23 March 2010.
http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/bics_calp.php
Shoebottom, Paul. “Second Language Acquisition.” 2007. 1 April 2010.
http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/cummin.htm
25
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