teachfirstjan20113

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Teach First
January 14th 2011
John Keenan [email protected]
http://teachfirstjk.wordpress.com
Los
Understand more about a specific education need.
Be able to implement at least three strategies that would help someone with this SEN
Dates
Monday 28th February – RJA2
Q7 improving practice, professional development
Monday 9th May – WA3
What theories influenced practice to improve the learning of two students with SEN
Andrew to teacher:
‘you’re a stupid old woman who never went to
school anyway’
Brenda sees a picture of a bee and butterfly:
‘there is a bee and a peanut butter’
We are all disabled
Labelling
Labelling
What labelled disabilities are there?
Labelling
Spectrum
ADHD
Autism
Dyslexia
Sensory
Dyspraxia
Gervais
Labelling
•Self-fulfilling prophecy
•Teacher expectancy effect – Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)
•Pupils with learning difficulties (Good and Brophy, 1984)
Teacher smile at them less often; they call their names to answer
a question less often; they demand less work from them
Labelling
‘differently abled’
People are not disabled, society disables.
we need labels for identity
we need labels to redress the balance
‘the emphasis on ‘ability not disability’…is a denial of the status of the disabled person…’
Colin Barnes, Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination, 1991, London: Hurst and Co, p.203
‘if disabled people are perceived as ‘normal’, then there is little need for the introduction of
policies to facilitate their integration into ‘normal’ society’
Colin Barnes, Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination, 1991, London: Hurst and Co, p.203
Labelling
20% - learning difficulties
physical, sensory, emotional, behavioural
1981 Education Act:
‘any difficulty of such a nature that the child requires
something more than, or different from the majority of other
children of the same age’
Cited in Doyle, 1996: 72
1.
2.
3.
4.
Face
Read through
Pass opposing hand 6 times in succession
Opposing hand write name
ReserchAsisstent
KloZing Dait:
oh3-tooØØ11 SallarRee: BannEdd Fiyv, AytEen, 7Øniyn pownz - TweNteeWun,68Wun pownz pURr anNem (prOw raRtur fourpart tiym
ars)
Deppartmunt: WourSSter Bizness Skool - SenTEr foRe PeEpl @ Werk
([email protected]) ARS: FlecKsabl beTweAnØ.6 FTE andfOoltIym
(thertee7 ars purrweak) - buyneggociacean Start Dayt:
AzsooNazpoSsable Dyouracean: Apoyntmant to0thurteefurst
Jooliy2ØØ9inisherlee Ressponssabl tWo: Dirrekterof
[email protected] Ressponsabl fOUr: EnN/ay Inturvuedayt:
NiynteanthMrcahTWOØØ11
Opposing hand up and say the third word of the question backwards
•
•
•
•
What does it pay for 21+?
How many hours per week?
What’s the closing date for applications?
When are they interviewing?
ReserchAsisstent
KloZing Dait:
oh3-tooØØ11 SallarRee: BannEdd Fiyv, AytEen, 7Øniyn
pownz - - TweNteeWun,68Wun pownz pURr anNem
(prOw raRtur fourpart tiym ars)
Deppartmunt: WourSSter Bizness Skool - SenTEr foRe
PeEpl @ Werk ([email protected]) ARS: FlecKsabl
beTweAnØ.6 FTE andfOoltIym (thertee7 ars purrweak) buyneggociacean Start Dayt:
AzsooNazpoSsable Dyouracean: Apoyntmant
to0thurteefurst Jooliy2ØØ9inisherlee Ressponssabl tWo:
Dirrekterof [email protected] Ressponsabl fOUr:
EnN/ay Inturvuedayt: NiynteanthsMrachTWOØØ11
From these experiences what does the dyslexic student need?
Then he reddened furiously, felt his bowels sink
with shame , scratched out what he had written,
made an agonised effort...failed, became sullen
with rage and humiliation, put the pen down and
would have been torn to pieces rather than write
another word’
D H Lawrence The Rainbow
What do you already do for dyslexic pupils?
Dys – painful, abnormal
Lexicos – words of a language
‘It is illogical for a person to say, ‘My child cannot
read because he is dyslexic’...It tells us no more
than saying a person is bleeding badly because
he has a haemorrhage or that someone has a
high temperature because they are feverish.’
Doyle, 1996: 69
Pumfrey and Reason (1998) 11 definitions
Rice and Brooks (2004) 40 definitions
Cited in Mortimore, 2008: 50
What do you know about dyslexia?
What % of pupils are dyslexic?
How many in your class?
‘It seems to be a natural human phenomenon to
want to classify events and concepts and then
apply labels to them....the use of the label
‘dyslexia’ should present no problems just as long
as it is understood that it may describe a variety of
behaviours...it remains a challenge to educate the
public regarding the concept of dyslexia’
Lawrence, 2009: 139-140
Identifying a condition has to have distinct:
Aetiology (cause)
Characteristics
Prognosis (prediction)
Response to interventions
Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 6
Alexia
Auditory dyslexia
Deep dyslexia vs Surface dyslexia (rules)
Dyseidetic/Dysphonetic dyslexia
Graphemic processor dyslexia
Hyperlexia (speaking)
L-type dyslexia vs P-type dyslexia
Morphemic dyslexia
Semantic processor dyslexia
Strephosymbolia (mirror)
Visual processor dyslexia
Doyle, 1996: 70-71
Brain drawing
Arrow the pattern for speech, reading and comprehension
Doyle, 1996: 119
Causes of dyslexia
Phonemes
Grigorenko (1977) Chromosome s 6 and 15 linked to a weakness in
phonological awareness
fMRI phonological awareness (Shaywitz, 1996)
Memory
Retaining and attaching verbal labels (Snowling, 2001)
Lateralization
McLoughlin et al (2002) memory in the right and left frontal lobe,
right more than left (Galaburda, 1989) but less dominance so
‘confused laterality’
Magnocellular
Stein and Walsh (1997) speed of movement between cells
History of dyslexia
Kussmaul 1877 – word blindness
Berlin 1877 – dyslexia
Hinshelwood 1895 – congenital
Norrie 1938 - organisation for dyslexic people
Cf Miles and Miles 1990 Dyslexia: A Hundred Years On
‘The Education Act 1981...increase(d) markedly
public awareness of the concept and the label’
Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 5
Under Secretary – ‘baffling condition’
‘Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty of
neurological and biological origin that is most
often characterized by a significant discrepancy
between measures of working memory and
reasoning ability together with a weakness in
the speed of processing information that may
be manifested through weaknesses in a variety
of educational attainments, particularly literary
skills, as well as everyday tasks’
Lawrence, 2009: 38-39
‘there is no international consensus over its definition’
Lawrence, 2009: 29
Causes:
‘the answer is not known’
Doyle, 1996: 112
left/right
confusions
visual
memory
visual
discrimination
essay
structure
visual
processi ng
Meares/
Irlen
syndrome
auditory
discrimination
may be fine
overall
picture
good
sequenci ng
Dyslexia
speech
processi ng
phonological
awareness
articulation
may be fine
time
management
spelling
long
term
memory
OK
visual
and
auditory
loops
poor
memory
automati city
OK for
e.g.
bicycle,
swimming
Not OK
for
coding
and
decoding
How do I recognise a dyslexic pupil?
*They ask the right questions, lively and interested, but
any written work is relatively poor and/or poor
handwriting.
*They arrive late, hand in work late
*They mix up instructions
Typical issues
223 pupils
Reading – 86%
Spelling – bizarrre
Left-right – 67%
B and d – 65%
Sentence memory
Rhyme
Miles (1983) cited in Doyle, 1996: 91-97
223 pupils
Group task: consider how you could change one of your lessons to
incorporate FOR ALL PUPILS the following three responses
Teacher Response 1
Multiple Intelligence
Gardner, dyslexic people have a different way of learning
Intelligences: kill smn
Support: pp29-30
Teacher Response 2
Mindmaps
Support: pp11-14
Teacher Response 3: Spelling Rules
Support: 52-60
Bottom up
Top down
‘Most children learn to recognize printed words by attending
first to higher order knowledge about language and life in
general’
Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 59
‘the best practice of ‘articulatory encoding of visual stimuli’
(naming) may be provided by the activity of reading itself’
Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 80
Previous experience of life
Shared knowledge
Purpose of language
Language structures
Reason 1990
Letter sounds
words
‘Effort after meaning’
Bartlett 1932 cited in Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 59-60
Fernald Multisensory Approach
Orton-Gillingham Method
Gillingham-Stillman Alphabetic Method
Alpha to Omega
Edith Norrie Letter Case
The Bangor Teaching Programme
Bannatyne’s Colour Phonics
The Hickey Method
Peabody Rebus Reading Programme
Aston Index
Aston Portfolio Assessment
Spelling Made Easy (Brand, 1984)
The Icon Approach
Reading Recovery (1988)
The English Colour Code Programmed Reading Course (1976)
Patterns of Sound (1968)
Pictogram System (1973)
Signposts to Spelling (1978)
ARROW (Aural – Read – Respond – Oral – Written) (1990)
Attack – a-Track
Simultaneous Oral Spelling
Psycho-motor programmes
Embedded pictures
Mnemonic drawings
Finger spelling
Syllabification
Cursive script
Develop the wiki for all to see and use for WA3
http://teachfirstdyslexia.wetpaint.com
Support strategies
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Write down main points
Use pictures, flow-charts, mind-maps
Colour all crucial information on the walls
Practical/kinaesthetic work
Interact one-to-one
Signpost topics and key points
Allow students time to absorb information.
Use recorders
Always give out homework instructions ready printed
VAK
‘primacy and recency’ rule
Use a font without serifs; Arial or Comic Sans.
Print some copies on blue and cream paper.
Your score out of 13?
Teacher solutions
http://www.dys-add.com/DV3Handout.pdf
Specially prepared work sheets
Teaching any specialised vocabulary prior to the lesson
Recording of literature
Photocopied notes
Bibliography
Bennett, D. 2006 Dyslexia Pocketbook Teachers’ pocketbooks
Buzan,T. 1997 The Mind Map Book London : BBC
Saunders & White 2002 How Dyslexics Learn
Evesham: patoss
Eckersley, J. 2004 Coping with Dyspraxia Sheldon Press
Biggs, V. 2005 Caged in Chaos Jessica Kingsley Pubs.
Mortimore T 2008 Dyslexia and Learning Styles Chichester: John Wiley and Sons
Hunter-Carsch M and Herrington M 2001 Dyslexia and Effective Learning London: Whurr
Pumfrey P and Reason R 1991 Specific Learning Difficulties London: Routledge
Doyle J 1996 Dyslexia: an Introductory Guide London: Whurr Publishers
Massey J 2008 Meeting the Needs of Students with Dyslexia London: Network Continuum
Edwards J 1994 The Scars of Dyslexia London: Cassell
Stirling EG 1987 Help for the Dyslexic Adolescent Chippenham: St David’s College
Turner E and Pughe J 2003 Dyslexia and English London: David Fulton Publishers
British Dyslexia Association www.bda-dyslexia.org.uk
Dyslexia Institute
www.dyslexia-inst.org.uk
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