LEARNING DISABILITY

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What is LD
Definition of LD :
•Inability to modify behaviour as consequence of experience.
•Approx 5-10% of paediatric Population is LD
•Genetic study shows LD inheritance in 10%-20% cases
Factors
PRENATAL
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Decreased Foetalmovements
malnourished mothers
Multiple abortions
Stress during pregnancy
NATAL
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Forceps Delivery
Induced Labor
Delayed Birth Cry
POSTNATAL
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ARDS
LBW , VLBW
Brain Tumours
Do u
Know if a
child is LD
Characteristics of Dyslexia
Delayed spoken language.
Errors in letter naming.
Difficulty in learning and remembering
printed words.
Reversal of letters or sequences of letter
In words.
Repeated spelling errors .
Cramped or illegible handwriting
Slow rate of writing
Difficulty in mathematical calculations
Deficient written and oral language skills
Dyslexia – Pre Schoolers
 Difficulty in pronunciation i.e. “ Duddle “ for “ Bubble “ ,
Shif for “ Fish “.
 Small vocab with difficulty in rhyming.
 Slow development of hand function.
 Motor Planning deficit.
Early Signs In Young Children
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Hyperactive,impulsive,highlydistractable.
Short attention spans.
Low frustration level.
Poor co-ordination and accident proneness.
Difficulty in balancing , cutting ,pasting and writing.
Speech delays/Gestural communication.
Multitasking is difficult.
Academics In Dyslexic Kids
•Spelling is far worse than reading , and writing is beyond
function.
•Can read “Doodle” on first page but forgets as soon as the
page is turned.
•Vowels,phonetics a majaor issue.
•Dysgraphia is commonly seen.
Assessment
•91 tests of learning disability are available.
•Most commonly used are
•Johnson ‘o’ conners LD scale.
•ELAP- Early learning assessment profile.
Treatment
Different FOR like SENSORY
INTEGRATION and NDT are practically
used by occupational therapist worldwide.
Providing knowledge to parents.
Reduce home pressure for achievements.
Give positive reinforcement.
Avoid punishment.
Special Ability & Skills
Although LD kids have unique brain
architecture and “unsual wiring” make
reading,writing and spelling difficult
most people with dyslexia have gifts in
areas controlled by the right hemisphere
of the brain.the right side controls.
Artistic skill.
Athetic ability.
Musical ability.
Mechanical ability.
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