discourse aspects of interlanguage, rod ellis

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DISCOURSE ASPECTS OF
INTERLANGUAGE, ROD ELLIS
1997
LINDA WIDI 2201410022
DANIK CAHYANINGRUM 2201410024
AYU NETA 2201410025
The study of learner discourse in SLA has been
informed by two rather different goals:
• Attempts to discover how L2 learners
acquirethe ‘rules’ of discourse that inform
native-speaker language use.
• To show how interaction shapes interlanguage
development.
Acquiring discourse rules
American English: a compliment usually calls
for a response and failure. Furthermore,
compliment responses are usually quite
elaborate.
L2 learners: sometimes fail to respond a
compliment at all or they produce bare
responses.
The role of input and
interaction in L2 acquisition
A behaviourist view treats language learning as
environmentally determined.
A mentalist theories emphasize the importance
of the learner’s ‘black box’.
Interactionist theories of L2 acquisition
acknowledge the importance the both input
and internal language processing.
One question that can be asked is whether the
discourse in which learners participate is in
any way different from the discourse native
speakers engage in.If learner discourse can be
shown to have special properties it’s possible
that these contribute to acquisition in some
way.
Foreigner talk, the language that native
speakers use when addresing non-native
speaker.Ungrammatical foreigner talk is
characterized by the deletion of certain
grammatical features such as copula be,
modal verb and articles, the use of the base
form of the verb in place of the past tense
form and the use of the special constructions
such as ‘no+verb’.
Various types of modification of baseline talk (i.e.
the kind of talk native speakers address to other
native speakers) can be identified :
1. First, grammatical foreigner talk is delivered at a
slower pace.
2. Second, the input is simplified.
3. Third, grammatical foreigner talk is sometimes
regularized
4. Fourth, foreigner talk sometimes consists of
elaborated language use
Type of Talk
Baseline talk
Example
You won’t forget to buy
the ice cream on your way
home, will you?
Ungrammatical foreigner No forget buying icetalk
cream,eh?
Grammatical foreigner talk The ice-cream- You will
not forget to buy it on your
way home – Get it when
you are coming home.All
right?
• Learners can signal that they have not
understood.The result in interactional
modifications as the participations as the
participants in the discourse engage in the
negotiation of meaning
 There is plenty evidance to suggest that modified
interaction of this kind is common in learnear
discourse.
Hiroki : A man is uh.dringking c-coffee or tea with uh
the saucer of the uh uh coffee set is uh in his uh knee.
Izumi : in him knee
Hiroko : uh on his knee
Izumi : yeah
Hiroko : on his knee
Izumi : so sorry, on his knee
According to Stephan Krashen’s input
hyphothesis, L2 acquisition takes place when a
learner understands input that contains
grammatical forms that are at ‘i +I’ . According
to Krashen, then, L2 acquisition depends on
comprehensible input.
Michael Long’s interaction hypothesis also
emphasizes the importance of
comprehensible input but claims that it is
most effective when it is modified through the
negotiation of meaning.As the interaction
between Hiroko and Izumi illustrates, learners
often receive negative evidence.
The relationship between modified interaction
and L2 acquisition is clearly a complex
one.Another perspective on the relationship
between discourse and L2 acquisition is
provided by Evelyn Hatch.
Hatch emphasizes the collaborative
endeavours of the learnears and the
interlocutors inconstructing discourse and
suggest that syntactic structures can grow out
of the process of building discourse.One way
is through scaffolding.
Mark : come here
Homer : no come here
Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, to explain
how interaction serves as the bedrock of
acquisition.The two key construtsc in what is
known as ‘activity theory’, based on
Vygotsky’s ideas, are motive and
internalization.I
THE ROLE OF OUTPUT IN L2 ACQUISITION
Krashen argues that speaking is the result of
acquisition not its .Merrill Swain has argued
that comprehensible output also plays a part
in L2 acquisition.
THANK YOU
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