EAGLE Student Mentoring PPT

EAGLE Student Mentoring
September 19, 2014 Orientation
Presenter: Peter Shaker, M.S. Ed.
 To gain an understanding of bilingual students
 To learn methods and strategies for working
with ELL students
 To share experiences and effective techniques
The content of the following
slides is from the following:
Mileidis Gort, Ed.D.
The Ohio State University
Defining Bilingualism
•Bilingualism is not only about proficiency in two
•Bilingualism is about proficiency, use, and experience
•Each language serves different purpose/s
•Each language is used in different places, with
different people
•Each language is a different tool for a different job!
Defining Bilinguals
•Bilinguals know more than one language to different
degrees and use these languages for a variety of
•A bilingual child is …
someone who is exposed to two languages no matter
what her level of proficiency in either language.
Types of Bilinguals
Simultaneous bilinguals
•Are exposed to two languages at very early age (from
birth -3 years)
•Have two native languages
•Develop two separate, but connected linguistic
Types of Bilinguals
Sequential bilinguals
•Learn one language first, then are introduced to a
second language (after age 3)
•Often have a home language that differs from the
language of instruction at school
Factors Influencing Bilingual Development Process
•Quantity of input in La, Lb
•Quality of input in La, Lb
•Opportunity to use language/s in different contexts
•Nature of language use in different contexts
Factors Influencing Bilingual Development Process
•Quantity of use and exposure to each language
•Quality of language context and input in each
•Opportunity to use language/s across a variety of
Stages of Dual Language Learning:
Simultaneous Bilinguals
•Simultaneous bilingual children and monolingual
children develop language in similar ways
•Reach same milestones, at around the same ages
•Growth in each language depends on exposure and
Stages of Dual Language Learning:
Simultaneous Bilinguals
•First words emerge at around 12 months
•Vocabulary includes words from each language
•Use similar strategies to communicate
•Over-extending the meaning of words
(e.g., dog = any four legged animal),
•Under-extending word meanings
(e.g., dog = the family’s dog)
•Two-word stage emerges at around 18 months
•At 3-4 years, begin to produce longer and more
complex sentences
Stages of Dual Language Learning: Sequential
STAGE 1: Home language (L1) use
•Children draw on what they know
•Attempt to use their home language to communicate
Stages of Dual Language Learning: Sequential Bilinguals
STAGE 2: Observation and listening period
•Children appear to be in a “non-verbal” period
•During this time, they collect data about the new
•They are listening, watching, and rehearsing quietly
what they are learning
Stages of Dual Language Learning: Sequential Bilinguals
STAGE 3: Limited use of new language
• Use telegraphic communication
•Single words, very short phrases
• Use formulaic phrases
•Learn entire chunks of language/phrases
•Don’t necessarily know what each component of phrase
Stages of Dual Language Learning: Sequential
STAGE 4: Selected use of new language
• Break up formulaic phrases into meaningful smaller
• Begin to build their own phrases, sentences with
those pieces
Stages of Dual Language Learning: Sequential
STAGE 5:Fluid use of second language (L2)
•With experience, exposure, support, and opportunity
to use their new language, proficiency in new language
BUT, there are individual differences in language
learning and development!
Language Learning “Errors”
•Are a natural part of the language learning process
•Show children’s meaning making and evolving
understanding of language patterns
•Represent strategies that learners use to create
• Provide evidence of progress in language
Transfer: Influence of Other Language
• Children’s linguistic knowledge is an important scaffold for
additional language learning
•Variations in linguistic patterns across languages leads to
nonstandard language, or transfer “errors”
–phonological influence -- “accent”
–syntactic influence -- word order
“the hat blue” vs. “the blue hat”
•Evidence that bilingual children are using what they know
and figuring out what works similarly and differently in each
•The use of words or elements of words from two or
more languages in conversation (or written language)
… But, does this mean the child is confused???
• A normal, natural aspect of bilingual acquisition (most
bilinguals do it!)
• A pragmatic, creative way to communicate as language
systems still developing
• NOT a sign of confusion, or inability to separate languages
“I put the fork en la mesa.”
“Quiero ir outside.”
Summary of Typical Early Bilingual Development
•Bilingualism does not cause language delays.
•Bilingual children’s early vocabularies in each language tend to be
smaller than those of monolinguals, but are comparable when
•Bilingual children follow a similar time line in development of
morphology and syntax as monolingual children, but bilinguals
might need more time to reach accuracy of use.
•Bilingual children are not equally fluent in each language. Their
language proficiencies change over time.
• Proficiency is related to exposure and opportunity to use
• Children use both developing languages as resources that
support further development.
• Codemixing is a typical bilingual behavior that supports
communication and meaning-making.
The content of the following slides is
from the following:
Effective Tier I Instruction for
English Language Learners
Two Types of Language
•Conversational Language
•Academic Language
Source: Jim Cummins
Examples of Conversational vs.
Academic Language
 My idea is like ___’s idea.
 My idea is similar to ____’s idea.
 I agree with ______’s perspective. I also think that
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
General Time
Teacher prompts
0-6 Months
Student understands very little
English. May be in silent period or
only give one or two word
Show me..
Point to…
Early production
6 months –
1 year
Student has limited understanding
of English and produces 1 or two
word responses. May understand
more than he/she can express
Yes or no questions
Either/or questions
Speech Emergence
1-3 years
Student understands most
conversational English, but not
academic language and idioms.
Can produce simple sentences, but
makes grammar and pronunciation
errors. Still has limited vocabulary.
Short answer questions
Intermediate Fluency
and Advanced
3-5 years and
5-7 years
Speaks in fluent sentences using
standard grammar. May have
difficulty understanding complex
content area materials. Limited
understanding of less commonly
used words and subtleties in
What do you think would
happen if..?
Why do you think..?
How do you use
L1 to build L2?
Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots
Layers of
Greek – 10%
(Content area
Latin - 60%
(Content area words)
Anglo-Saxon – 25%
(Dolch words)
 Teaching word patterns can help students decode and
connecting these patterns to prefixes, suffixes and root
words with meaning can help students better
comprehend text.
 Students with a Latin or Greek-based L1 can benefit
from explicit instruction on using cognates.
Note – The National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
Children and Youth found that students need extensive
oral language development and practice using rich, oral
language in addition to instruction on the 5 components
of reading (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency,
comprehesion and vocabulary)
What other vocabulary might a
newcomer know?
Can you name some more?
How to Create a
Welcoming Environment
Survival cards
Tour of the school (nurse, principal, cafeteria,
Labeling the classroom and school
Map and pictures of native country
Teach entire class about culture and language
Pronounce their names correctly
Connect parents to someone in the community
who speaks the same home language
Find cultural resources in neighboring towns
Effective ELL Instruction:
2 Things to Think About
for Output
Summary of Effective ELL Strategies
Use of visuals, gestures,
realia, hands-on tasks
instruction for concepts
and vocabulary (including
academic language)
Scaffolding information – modified
text, graphic organizers, sentence
frames and stems, modified and
alternate text, note taking, listening
guides, info gap activities
Adjusting teacher speech
- shorter sentences, use
of idioms, pace and
clarity of speech, saying
many different ways
Frequent opportunities for language practice:
small group cooperative learning
 think-pair-share
 role-playing
short presentations
 interviewing
Michigan English Language
Proficiency Standards
Based on the TESOL ESL Standards for
Pre-K to12 Students
Language is functional:
Developing accurate and fluent, listening, speaking,
reading and writing skills in English is essential for
students to function proficiently in social situations as
well as learn challenging academic content throughout
the curriculum.
Language processes develop interdependently:
The acquisition of language skills (listening, speaking,
reading, and writing) occurs simultaneously and
interdependently as learners use English effectively in a
variety of social and academic settings.
Language acquisition occurs through meaningful use
and interaction:
English Language Learners (ELLs) must have multiple
authentic opportunities to use language, to interact
with others as they study meaningful and intellectually
challenging content, and to receive feedback on their
language use.
Language acquisition is a long-term process:
Language acquisition occurs over time with learners
moving through developmental stages and gradually
growing in proficiency.
Language learning is cultural learning:
To learn a new language is to learn a new culture.
Patterns of language usage vary across cultures and
reflect differences in values, norms, and beliefs about
social roles and relationships in each culture.
Native language proficiency contributes to second
language acquisition:
Literacy in the native language correlates positively with
literacy in the second language. The level of a student’s
native language proficiency varies. Some ELLs come to
the task of learning English and content through English
already literate in their native language.
Language Teaching
Methodologies and
From Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Richards, J.
and Rodgers, T. (1986) CUP Cambridge.
© Copyright Paul Shoebottom 1996-2014
 The Direct Method
 In this method the teaching is done entirely in the
target language. The learner is not allowed to use his
or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided
and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.
 Audio-lingual
 The theory behind this method is that learning a
language means acquiring habits. There is much
practice of dialogues of every situations. New
language is first heard and extensively drilled before
being seen in its written form.
 Total Physical Response (TPR)
 TPR works by having the learner respond to simple
commands such as "Stand up", "Close your book",
"Go to the window and open it." The method stresses
the importance of aural comprehension.
 Communicative language teaching (CLT)
 The focus of this method is to enable the learner to
communicate effectively and appropriately in the
various situations she would be likely to find herself
in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as
inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as
the expression of time, quantity, location. [
 The Silent Way
 This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to
say as little as possible in order that the learner can be
in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of
the mother tongue.
 Immersion
 This corresponds to a great extent to the situation we
have at our school. ESL students are immersed in the
English language for the whole of the school day and
expected to learn math, science, humanities etc.
through the medium of the target language, English.
 Task-based language learning
 The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a
task which in itself is interesting to the learners.
Learners use the language they already have to
complete the task and there is little correction of
 The Natural Approach
 This approach, propounded by Professor S. Krashen,
stresses the similarities between learning the first and
second languages. There is no correction of mistakes.
Learning takes place by the students being exposed
to language that is comprehensible or made
comprehensible to them.
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