Directional Terms

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1.
2.
Compare and contrast positive and
negative feedback mechanisms
Give and example of each type of
mechanism and explain how each works
for that example
When navigating the body,
directional terms help determine
the exact location of a structure
 All
directional terms
are based on the
body being in the
“anatomical position”
• Facing forward
• Palms outward
 Superior/inferior
(cranial/caudal)
 Anterior/posterior (ventral/dorsal)
 Medial/lateral
 Proximal/distal (usually used with
reference to the limbs)
 Superficial/deep
1.
2.
3.
4.
The knees are __________ to the
thighs
Your eyebrows are _________ to your
nose
Your diaphragm is __________ to
your stomach
Your elbows are ____________ to the
wrists
 Imaginary
lines used to section the body
and its organs
 These lines run longitudinally,
horizontally, and on an angle

•
•

•

•

•
median/sagittal
cuts body in half
if not median, can still be sagittal
frontal (coronal)
cuts the body into front and back halves
Transverse
Cut in half at the stomach
Oblique
Angular cut
1.
2.
3.
A mad slasher has a machete and slices
you into two parts – front and back –
what type of cut was it.
You are cutting vegetables cut your
finger diagonally – what type of cut was
it?
Describe a sagittal cut
1.
2.
3.
4.
Describe the anatomical position
What word can be used instead of
cranial?
What word would you use to describe
your skin to your muscles? What about
your muscles to your skin?
What is the another word for ventral?
e
c
d
a
b
Front
 Spaces
within the body that contain the
internal organs
 There are 7 cavities – two are closed
and 5 are open
1.


The dorsal cavity
Located in the posterior region of the
body
Contains two smaller cavities
Cranial cavity – contains the brain
Vertebral cavity – contains the spinal
cord
2. The ventral cavity
- Located in the anterior region of the trunk
- Contains two smaller cavities separated by the
diaphragm

Thoracic cavity – separated into two compartments by
the medisternum which contains the aorta, esophagus,
trachea, thymus
 Pleural cavities – the spaces surrounding each lung
 Pericardial cavity – the space in which the heart is located

Abdominopelvic cavity
- Large abdominal cavity – the space that contains the stomach, liver,
spleen, gall bladder, kidney, and most of the large and small intestine
- The pelvic cavity – the space that contains the terminal part of the
large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
 In
what cavity would you find the spinal
cord?
 What separates the thoracic and
abdominal cavities?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oral cavity – teeth and tongue
Nasal cavity – nose and sinuses
Orbital cavities – eyes
Middle ear cavities
Synovial cavities – houses joints
 Designated
for specific body areas that
have a special nerve or vascular supply
or those that perform a special function
 The most widely used terms are those
that designate regions in the abdomen
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Umbilical region
Epigastric region
Hypogastric region
Right/left iliac regions (a.k.a. inguinal)
Right/left lumbar regions
Right/left hypochondriac regions
1.
-
Umbilical region
Small intestine
2. Epigastric region
liver, diaphragm, transverse colon of large
intestine, and stomach
3. Hypogastric region
- appendix, bladder, small intestine
4.
-
5.
6.
-
Right iliac region
Cecum and ascending colon of the large
intestine
Right lumbar region
Ascending colon
Right hypochondriac region
Gall bladder, liver, diaphragm, and
transverse colon
7.
-
Left iliac region
Initial part of the sigmoid colon
8. Left lumbar region
Descending colon
Left hypochondriac region
- stomach, diaphragm, transverse colon,
start of the descending colon
9.
There are four major quadrants:
1. Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
2. Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
3. Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
4. Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
 Label
each section of the
abdonminpelvic area
A
F
J
B
D
G
C
H
I
1.
2.
3.
In what region(s) would I find my
transverse colon?
Suzy goes to the hospital with
appendicitis. What part of her
abdomen will they have to cut?
Billy the bully gets punched in the
umbilical section of his abdomen. What
organ(s) are at risk for injury?
2.
1.
3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Of the 9 abdominopelvic regions, what 4
would be found or partially found in the left
upper quadrant?
The spinal cord is ____________ to the
esophagus
The larynx is _____________ to the
trachea
Tommy is cutting down a tree with a chain
saw – it slips and cuts off his arm. What
type of cut is this?
 Give
the anatomical name for the
following areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The cheek
The chest
The armpit
The kneecap
The thigh
The lower back
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