Circulation - Fog.ccsf.edu

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The liquid part of blood is called
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A) water.
B) plasma.
C) serum.
D) extrastitial fluid.
E) anionic fluid.
Circulatory & respiratory systems
Chs 12 & 14
Lecture outline
• Review of blood- functions & parts
• Ch. 12: Circulation- The path of blood
– Arteries, veins & capillaries
– The circulatory pathway
• The heart- structure & function
– Blood pressure
• Cardiovascular disease
• The lymphatic system
• The respiratory system– Structure & function
– Respiratory disorders
Announcements
• Blood lab- Due today!
• Ch 12 online- Due Wednesday!
Blood review
• Parts of blood
• Function of blood
Blood is a mixture of cells and plasma
Human Blood after centrifugation
• ~55% Plasma
• ~45% Red blood cells
• <1% White blood cells and
platelets (“buffy coat”)
Blood plasma
• Water
• Nutrients
• Solutes- Na+, Cl-,
wastes, CO2, etc.
• Functions:
–
–
–
–
–
Carry nutrients to cells
Dissolve wastes in cells
Osmotic equilibrium
Factors to fight infection
Clotting factors also
All blood cells are part of the
hematopoetic stem cell lineage
Red blood cells carry oxygen and CO2
• Lose nucleus in
development
• Short-lived, no repair
• Packed solid with
hemoglobin
• Membranes designed to
maximize surface area
• Facilitate gas transfer
Hemoglobin is the oxygen-binding
protein in red blood cells
• The oxygen-carrying
protein
• Heterotetrameric protein
• 2 alpha subunits, 2 beta
• Each subunit holds a
Heme group
• Each heme holds an Fe++
ion
• Each Fe++ can bind an
O2
Hemoglobin binding curve
• In areas of High O2
(e.g., lungs)- binds O2
very well (picks up O2)
• In areas of Low O2 (e.g.,
muscles) binds O2
poorly (drops off O2)
• Myoglobin binds O2 in
muscle & organ tissues
Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic disorder
caused by a mutation in hemoglobin
• )
Platelets assist with blood clotting
• Recruit plasma protein
fibrinogen to a cut
• They release clotting
factors
• Clotting factors convert
fibrinogen to fibrin
• Fibrin net prevents
blood loss
White blood cells fight infection
• B cells make antibodies
• T cells kill cancerous cells
and invaders
• Macrophages swallow
bacteria
• Granulocytes
(eosinophils, neutrophils,
basophils) secrete
histamines & other toxins
against allergens, worms,
and bacteria
The Immune system is the body’s
defense system
• Against:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bacteria
Viruses
Protists
Other living invaders
Toxins
Foreign debris
Cancerous cells
• The immune system is
complex
• Defends against threats
known and unknown
The circulatory system
The Cardiovascular System
• The cardiovascular system is composed of
– Blood
– Blood vessels
– Heart
The Cardiovascular System
Veins
• Carry blood back to the
heart
Superior vena cava
• Carries blood from the
upper body back to the
heart
Jugular veins
• Carry blood from head
to the heart
Pulmonary veins
• Carry oxygenated blood
from the lungs to the
heart
Renal vein
• Carries blood from the
kidney to the heart
Inferior vena cava
• Carries blood from the
lower body back to the
heart
Radial vein
• Carries blood from the
hand back to the heart
Iliac vein
• Carries blood from the
pelvic organs and
abdominal wall
back to the heart
Femoral vein
• Carries blood from the
thigh and inner knee
back to the heart
Figure 12.1 (1 of 2)
The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in 2
Continuous Loops
• Blood passes through the following loop of
vessels moving away from the heart
– Arteries
– Arterioles
– Capillaries
– Venules
– Veins
• Blood returns to the heart from the veins
Veins and arteries travel in parallel
Arteries
• Carry blood away from
heart
Carotid arteries
• Deliver blood to the head
and the brain
Coronary arteries
• Deliver blood to the
heart muscle cells
Aorta
• Delivers blood to the
body tissues
Pulmonary arteries
• Deliver oxygen-poor
blood to the lungs
Renal artery
• Delivers blood to the
kidney
Iliac artery
• Delivers blood to
pelvic organs and
abdominal wall
Radial artery
• Delivers blood to
the hand
Femoral artery
• Delivers blood to
thigh and inner knee
The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in
Continuous Loops
Figure 12.2
Capillaries facilitate gas, nutrient & waste
transfer
Figure 12.3b
Capillaries are made of epithelial tissue
Figure 12.3c
The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in
Continuous Loops
To tissue cells
Slit between cells
Capillary cell
Nucleus
Red blood cell
(a) Substances are exchanged between the blood and tissue
fluid across the plasma membrane of the capillary or through
slits between capillary cells.
Figure 12.3a
The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in
Continuous Loops
Figure 12.3
Blood Vessels
• The hollow interior of all blood vessels is
called the lumen
Blood Vessels
• Arteries
– Thick, muscular vessels that carry blood away
from the heart
– “A= away”
– Are able to withstand high blood pressure
– Thick walls make arteries pliable and durable
Blood Vessels
• The elasticity of the arteries maintains
pressure on the blood between heartbeats to
keep it flowing through the vessels
Blood Vessels
• As the heart pumps blood into the arteries,
they expand such that one is able to feel a
pulse
• The pulse rate is the same as the heart rate
Blood Vessels
• Vasoconstriction
– When muscle contracts and the diameter of the
lumen narrows, reducing blood flow
• Vasodilation
– When muscle relaxes and the diameter of the
lumen increases, increasing blood flow
Blood Vessels
• Arterioles are the prime controllers of blood
pressure
• Arterioles serve as gatekeepers to the capillary
networks keeping them open or closed
Blood Vessels
Figure 12.4b
Blood Vessels
• An aneurysm occurs when the wall of an
artery is weakened and swells
• The primary risk is that it will burst, causing
blood loss
• If it does not burst it can form life-threatening
clots
Blood Vessels
• Capillaries have walls that are one cell thick
and connect arterioles and venules
Blood Vessels
Figure 12.4a
Arterioles have sphincter muscles
Figure 12.4b (1 of 2)
Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels
• Capillaries form branching networks that allow
for the exchange of materials between the
blood and tissues
• Blood flows more slowly due to the large
surface area
– Provides more time for the exchange of materials
Blood Vessels
• Capillaries merge to form the smallest kind of
vein, a venule
– Venules join to form larger veins
• Veins
– Carry blood back to the heart
– Serve as reservoirs for blood volume
Blood Vessels
• Veins
– Blood is moved against gravity toward the heart
by
• Contracting skeletal muscles
• Pressure differences caused by the movement of the
thoracic cavity during breathing
• Valves
– Prevent blood flowing backwards
Vein walls are thinner and weaker than arteries
Figure 12.6a
Veins have valves for one-way bloodflow
Valve
open
Valve
closed
Muscle contraction
squeezes the vein,
pushing blood
through the open
valve toward the
heart.
Skeletal muscles
relax, and blood
fills the valves
and closes them.
(b)
Valve
closed
Relaxed calf
muscles
Contracted calf
muscles
Figure 12.6b
• Which of the following are found in veins that
help direct blood flow in one direction only
toward the heart?
• A) Valves
• B) Lymph nodes
• C) Myocardium
• D) Pericardium
The pathway of blood
Area vs. blood velocity in the
circulatory system
Figure 12.5
Blood Vessels
• Most materials simply diffuse across the
capillary cell wall into the cells by the force of
both blood pressure and osmotic pressure
The heart pumps the blood through two circulatory pathways
Oxygen-rich
blood
(to body)
Oxygen-poor
blood
(c) (from body cells)
Oxygen-poor
blood
(to lungs)
Oxygen-rich
blood
(from lungs)
Figure 12.7c
The Heart
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The heart is made of cardiac muscle tissue
called myocardium
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.7a
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.7b
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The interior of the heart is lined by
endocardium
• A fibrous sac, the pericardium, encloses the
heart and holds the heart in the center of the
thoracic cavity
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The two halves of the heart are separated by a
septum
• Each half has two chambers
– One smaller and thin-walled atrium
– One larger, more muscular ventricle
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Superior vena
cava
Right
pulmonary
arteries
Aorta
Left pulmonary
arteries
Pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary
semilunar valve
Left pulmonary veins
Right atrium
Right
pulmonary
veins
Right
atrioventricular
valve
(tricuspid valve)
Chordae tendineae
Right
ventricle
Inferior vena cava
(d)
Left atrium
Aortic semilunar valve
(hidden from view)
Left
atrioventricular
valve (mitral valve)
Left ventricle
Myocardium
Endocardium
Pericardium
Septum
Figure 12.7d
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The right side of the heart
– Contains blood rich in carbon dioxide
• Returns from the tissues
• Flows out to the lungs
• The left side of the heart
– Contains blood rich in oxygen
• Returns from the lungs
• Flows out to the tissues
The Heart has valves for one-way
bloodflow
• Valves
– Atrioventricular (AV) valves
• Separate the atria from ventricles
– Semilunar valves
• Separate the ventricles from the exit vessels
• Keep blood from flowing backwards
– Give rise to the typical “lub-dup” sounds of the
heartbeat
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The AV valve on the right
– Called the tricuspid valve
– Has three flaps
• The AV valve on the left
– Called the bicuspid or mitral valve
– Has two flaps
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.8
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• Pulmonary Circuit
– The right side of the heart pumps blood to and
from the lungs
• Systemic Circuit
– The left side of the heart pumps blood to and
from the tissues
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Systemic circuit
• Gas exchange
in capillary
beds throughout
body tissues
Right side
Left side
Pulmonary
circuit
• Gas exchange
in lungs
Superior
vena cava
Aorta
Pulmonary
artery
Pulmonary
artery
Pulmonary veins
Oxygen-rich blood
(to body)
Inferior vena cava
Oxygen-poor blood
(from body cells)
Oxygen-rich
blood
(from lungs)
Pulmonary
veins
Oxygenpoor blood
(to lungs)
Aorta
Figure 12.9
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The heart muscle is nourished by coronary
circulation
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Aorta
Pulmonary
veins
Superior
vena cava
Pulmonary
trunk
Right
coronary
vein
Right
coronary
artery
Left coronary
artery
Left
coronary
vein
Inferior
vena
cava
(a)
Figure 12.10a
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.10b
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The cardiac cycle
– Contraction of the atria
– Followed by contraction of the ventricles
– Followed by a rest when neither chamber is
contracting
• Contraction is called systole
• Relaxation is called diastole
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.11
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The sinoatrial (SA) node
– Generates an electrical signal that sets the tempo
– Called the pacemaker
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• The SA node
– Causes contraction of the atria and sends a signal
to the atrioventricular (AV) node, which relays
information to the atrioventricular bundle and out
through the Purkinje fibers, causing the ventricles
to contract
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.12 (1 of 5)
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.12 (2 of 5)
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.12 (3 of 5)
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.12 (4 of 5)
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.12 (5 of 5)
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• A combination of nervous and endocrine
signals control the strength and rate of
contraction of the heart
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• An electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
– Recording of the electrical events associated with
the heartbeat
– A powerful diagnostic tool
• Abnormal patterns can indicate heart problems
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.13a
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• A typical ECG/EKG consists of three
distinguishable deflection waves
– P wave
– QRS wave
– T wave
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
Figure 12.13b
• Blood vessels that serve as gateways to
capillary beds are:
• A) venules.
• B) arteries.
• C) arterioles.
• D) veins.
• Which of these is the portion of the heartbeat
that involves contraction of the heart?
• A) Cardiac cycle
• B) Pacemaker
• C) Diastole
• D) Systole
Cardiovascular disease
The Heart is a Muscular Pump
• Blood pressure
– Highest (systolic) when the ventricles contract,
sending blood into the arteries
– Lowest (diastolic) when the heart relaxes between
beats
Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in
the United States
• Sphygmomanometer
– Measures blood pressure
– Can provide early identification of hypertension,
or high blood pressure, the silent killer
Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in
the United States
Figure 12.14 (1 of 2)
Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in
the United States
Figure 12.14 (2 of 2)
Cardiovascular Disease
• Atheroscloerosis
– A narrowing of the arteries due to fatty deposits
and thickening of the wall
– Can lead to heart attack or stroke
• When this occurs in the arteries of the heart muscle, it
is called coronary artery disease
Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.16a
Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.16b
Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.16c
Cardiovascular Disease
• Angiography
– Can show coronary artery blockage, which can
then be treated with medicines or surgical
operations such as angioplasty or coronary bypass
surgery
Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.17
Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.18
Cardiovascular Disease
• Heart muscle dies because of an insufficient
blood supply during a heart attack (myocardial
infarction) and is gradually replaced by scar
tissue
• Scar tissue cannot contract, so part of the
heart permanently loses its pumping ability
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Cardiovascular Disease
Figure 12.19
Cardiovascular Disease
• Heart failure
– Condition in which the heart becomes an
inefficient pump
– Leads to shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid
accumulation
The Lymphatic System
• Lymphatic system functions
– Return interstitial fluid to the blood stream
– Transport products of fat digestion
– Defend the body against disease-causing
organisms and abnormal cells
The Lymphatic System
Tonsils
• Protect the throat
against bacteria and
foreign agents
Right lymphatic duct
• Returns the lymph from
the upper part of body
to the blood
Thoracic duct
• Returns lymph from
most of the body to
the blood
Lymph vessels
• Return excess interstitial
fluid to the blood
• Some transport products of
fat digestion to the blood
(a) The lymphatic system returns the fluid to
the bloodstream that previously left the
capillaries to bathe the cells, protects
against disease-causing organisms, and
transports products of fat digestion from
the small intestine to the bloodstream.
Thymus
• Site where T
lymphocytes mature,
enabling them to fight
specific disease-causing
organisms
Spleen
• Site of lymphocyte
production
• Removes old red
blood cells, foreign
debris, and
microorganisms from
the blood
Lymph nodes
• Filter lymph before
returning it to the blood
• Contain lymphocytes
and macrophages that
defend against
disease-causing
organisms
Figure 12.22a
The Lymphatic System
Figure 12.22b
The Lymphatic System
• Elephantiasis
– A condition in which parasites block the passage
of lymphatic fluid returning to blood
– Results in massive swelling, darkening, and
thickening of the skin in the affected area
The Lymphatic System
Figure 12.20
The Lymphatic System
• Lymph
– Interstitial fluid that builds up around the cells
– Enters the lymph capillaries, then passes through
a series of vessels and is returned to the
circulatory system
The Lymphatic System
Figure 12.21
The Lymphatic
System
Tissue
cells
Anchoring
filaments
Interstitial
fluid
enters
Endothelium
Flaplike
minivalve
Figure 12.21 (1 of 2)
The Lymphatic System
Arteriole
Blood
Venule
capillaries
Lymph
capillaries
Tissue
cells
Figure 12.21 (2 of 2)
The Lymphatic System
• Lymph nodes
– Bean–shaped structures
– Filter lymph
– Contain macrophages and lymphocytes that
actively defend against disease-causing organisms
The Lymphatic System
Figure 12.22b
The Lymphatic System
• Lymphoid organs include
– Tonsils
– Thymus gland
– Spleen
– Peyer’s patches
The Lymphatic System
Tonsils
• Protect the throat
against bacteria and
foreign agents
Right lymphatic duct
• Returns the lymph from
the upper part of body
to the blood
Thoracic duct
• Returns lymph from
most of the body to
the blood
Lymph vessels
• Return excess interstitial
fluid to the blood
• Some transport products of
fat digestion to the blood
(a) The lymphatic system returns the fluid to
the bloodstream that previously left the
capillaries to bathe the cells, protects
against disease-causing organisms, and
transports products of fat digestion from
the small intestine to the bloodstream.
Thymus
• Site where T
lymphocytes mature,
enabling them to fight
specific disease-causing
organisms
Spleen
• Site of lymphocyte
production
• Removes old red
blood cells, foreign
debris, and
microorganisms from
the blood
Lymph nodes
• Filter lymph before
returning it to the blood
• Contain lymphocytes
and macrophages that
defend against
disease-causing
organisms
Figure 12.22a
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