Session 4 Ugarte Part I - International Hospital Federation

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Safe Hospitals Programs
Dr. Ciro Ugarte
Emergency Preparedness
and Disaster Relief
2010
Hundreds of hospitals are affected by natural
phenomena in the Americas
EARTHQUAKES
• Peru, 1970
• Guatemala, 1976
• Mexico, 1985
• El Salvador, 2001
• Peru, 2007
• Haiti, Chile, Mexico, 2010
HURRICANES
• Jamaica, H. Gilbert, 1988
• Dominican Republic, H. Georges, 1998
• Honduras and Nicaragua, H. Mitch, 1998
• Grenada, H. Ivan, 2004
• United States, H. Katrina, 2005
• Guatemala, H. Stan, 2006
• Nicaragua, H. Felix, 2007
• Cuba, H. Gustav & Ike, 2008
OTHER PHENOMENA
• Colombia, volcanic avalanche, 1985
• Peru & Ecuador, El Niño Phenomenon, 1997
• Argentina, floods, 2003
• Haiti & Dominican Republic, landslides, 2004
• Mexico, floods, 2007
• Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Pandemic H1N1 2009
2010
Earthquake in México
2010
Earthquake in El Salvador
2010
Disaste
r Risk
Reduct
ion
Hurricane in the Caribbean
2010
Hurricane in Jamaica
2010
Floods in Argentina
2010
Volcanic Eruption in Montserrat
Disaster Risk Reduction Forum2010
(DRA Forum 2009)
Hospals Safe from Disasters
Earthquake in Guatemala
2010
Earthquake in Haiti
2010
The problem
• More than 67% of the nearly 18,000 hospitals in Latin
America and the Caribbean are located in areas at
higher risk of disasters.
• Hospitals are a huge investment and represent more
than 60% of the Ministries of Health Budget.
• Hundreds of them were destroyed as a result of
major earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods, causing
massive impact in health care and enormous
economic loss for the health sector.
2010
From
Vulnerability Reduction in
Health Facilities
to
Safe Hospitals
2010
Agreement in the Americas
To urge Member States to adopt “Hospitals Safe
from Disasters” as a national risk reduction
policy, set the goal that all new hospitals are
built with a level of protection that better
guarantees their remaining functional in disaster
situations,
and implement appropriate mitigation measures
to reinforce existing health facilities, particularly
those providing primary care.
45th Directing Council, 2004
Pan American Health Organization
World Health Organization
2010
“Integrate disaster reduction planning in the
health sector; Promote the goal of Safe Hospitals
to ensure that all new hospitals are built with a
level of protection that better guarantees their
remaining functional in disaster situations,
and implement appropriate mitigation measures
to reinforce existing health facilities, particularly
those providing primary care.”
Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015:
Building the Resilience of Nations
2010
and Communities to Disasters
Europe
2010
South East Asia
2010
East Mediterranean
‫المستشفيات المأمونة من الكوارث الطبيعية‬
Hospitals safe from natural disasters
• Pakistan Earthquake in 2005
destroyed 388 of the 796 health
services in the affected area.
• A Group of Experts was
established to validate safe
hospitals assessment tools and
to elaborate a regional
implementation framework.
• Electronic Atlas of natural and
human-made hazards.
2010
Safe Hospital
• Is a health facility whose services remains
accessible and functioning, at maximum
capacity and in the same facility immediately
after a large-scale disaster or emergency.
• The key issue is in the level of protection!
2010
Levels of Protection
I.
Life Protection (patients, health personnel and
visitors)
II.
Investment Protection (equipment, furnishings
and utility services)
III. Operational Protection (maintain or improve
the facility’s capacity to function).
2010
Safe Hospitals Strategies
•
•
•
•
National and international agreements
Adoption of appropriate norms and standards
Promotion of other sectors participation
Incorporation of protection criteria at the hospital
design phase
• Safety measures implementation in existing health
facilities
• Emergency preparedness strengthening
• Monitoring of national safe hospitals program
implementation
2010
Some Countries Initiatives
•
•
•
•
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•
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•
•
•
Colombia: development
Costa Rica: fires
Chile: new investments
Peru: civil defense
El Salvador: reconstruction
Bolivia: guidelines
Cuba: international seminars
Nicaragua: national committee
Mexico: certification
Andean Community: Disaster reduction priority
2010
Existing Facilities
• Retrofitting all vulnerable facilities is
unrealistic in most countries
• The cost of retrofitting can be as high
as 40% of the replacement value
2010
Traditional Hospital Vulnerability
Assessment
•
•
•
•
•
Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis
Structural Assessment
Non Structural Assessment
Equipment and Critical Lines Studies
Organizational/Functional Evaluation
Disaster Mitigation Advisory Group (DiMAG)
• Hospital Safety Index
2010
Hospital Safety Index
• Safe Hospitals Checklist
• Mathematic Model (Safety
Index Calculator)
• Hospital Safety Index
2010
Safety Index
• The Hospital Safety Index provides a snapshot of the
probability that a hospital or health facility will continue to
function in emergency situations.
• By determining a hospital’s Safety Index or score,
countries and decision makers have an overall idea of its
ability to respond to major emergencies and disasters.
• The Hospital Safety Index does not replace costly and
detailed vulnerability studies. However, because it is
relatively inexpensive and easy to apply, it is an important
first step toward prioritizing a country’s investments in
hospital safety.
2010
Functional Safety
HIGH
20%
Assessment Results
for the first 395
hospitals
LOW
55%
AVERAGE
25%
Category A 36 %
Category B 48 %
Category C 16 %
Hospital Safety Index
1.00
0.90
0.80
Index
0.70
0.53
0.60
0.50
Safety index:
0.40
0.47
Health Facility Status:
Category B
0.30
0.20
0.47
0.10
Safety index
Category
Type
0 – 0.35
Category C
Urgent measures to protect the life
of patients and hospital staff
0.36 – 0.65
Category B
Necessary measures are required in
the short term to reduce losses
0.66 – 1
Category A
Preventative measures are required
2010
to maintain and improve safety
0.00
Hospital ...
What should be done?
23 Countries in the Region are already
applying the Hospital Safety Index
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anguilla
Barbados
Bahamas
Belize
Bolivia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Grenada
Guatemala
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Montserrat
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent & the
Grenadines
• Suriname
• Trinidad and Tobago
2010
Plan of Action on Safe Hospitals
2010 - 2015
2010
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