The War Ends - Waverly-Shell Rock Community Schools

10th American History
Unit V – A Nation Facing Challenges
Chapter 19 – Section 4 – The War Ends
The War Ends
The Main Idea
President Nixon eventually ended U.S. involvement in
Vietnam, but the war had lasting effects on the United
States and in Southeast Asia.
Reading Focus
• How did President Nixon’s policies widen U.S. involvement in the
• How and why did protests against the war increase?
• How did Nixon achieve an end to U.S. involvement in Vietnam?
• What was the war’s legacy in the United States and in Vietnam?
Why are we in Vietnam?
• “Domino
• Stop Aggression
• Protect our
reputation- our
Situation in Vietnam prior to Nixon’s Election in 1968- 5:12 min.
How did President Nixon’s policies widen
U.S. involvement in the war?
• During his 1968 campaign, Nixon pledged to
end the war in Vietnam.
• Nixon and his National Security Advisor Henry
Kissinger devised plans to end the war.
• In 1969 Kissinger began secret peace
negotiations in Paris with North Vietnamese
revolutionary Le Duc Tho.
• The U.S. strategy aimed at achieving “peace
with honor.”
– Vietnamization
– Laos and Cambodia
Vietnamization & the Anti-war Movement (03:33)
Nixon and Vietnamization
The plan was to encourage the South
Vietnamese to take more
responsibility for fighting the war.
It was hoped that this policy would
eventually enable the United States to
withdraw gradually all their soldiers
from Vietnam.
July 1969, the 540,000 US troops
were to be reduced by 25,000.
To increase the size of the ARVN
(Army of the Republic of Vietnam),
a mobilization law was passed in
South Vietnam that called up into the
army all men between seventeen and
forty-three years of age.
Nixon and Vietnamization 4:30 min.
"carrot and stick" strategy
Negotiate through strength
Nixon proposed "mutual withdrawal" of troops
and no more bombing of North Vietnam- Jan. 25,
Nixon's advisers told him that they feared that the
gradual removal of all US troops would eventually
result in a National Liberation Front victory. It was
therefore agreed that the only way that America
could avoid a humiliating defeat was to negotiate a
peace agreement in the talks that were taking place
in Paris.
Madman Theory- In an effort to put pressure on
North Vietnam in these talks. Bob Haldeman, one
of the US chief negotiators, was told to give the
impression that President Nixon was mentally
unstable and that his hatred of communism was so
fanatical that if the war continued for much longer
he was liable to resort to nuclear weapons against
North Vietnam.
Phoenix Program
Another Nixon innovation- secret
Vietnamese were trained by the CIA
to infiltrate peasant communities and
discover the names of NLF
When they had been identified, Death
Squads were sent in to execute them.
Between 1968 and 1971, an estimated
40,974 members of of the NLF were
killed in this way.
It was hoped that the Phoenix
Program would result in the
destruction of the NLF organization,
but, as on previous occasions, the
NLF was able to replace its losses by
recruiting from the local population
and by arranging for volunteers to be
sent from North Vietnam.
Nixon’s Secret War 2:44 min
Nixon secretly widened the war to force
the North Vietnamese to negotiate.
Secret bombing of North Vietnamese
and Cambodian bases in Cambodia
While enlarging the war Nixon also
began to withdraw troops.
In 1970, the communists in Cambodia
overthrew the leader Prince Sihanouk
and took over (Khmer Rouge). U.S.
and South Vietnamese leadership were
concerned with Vietcong and North
Vietnamese bases located in Cambodia
across the South Vietnam border
(Mekong River).
President Nixon gave the approval for
an April, 30, 1970 attack across the
border into Cambodia by the Allies and
U.S. Tanks- an incursion. This seemed
to be in direct conflict with
administration’s attempt to scale down
the war (Vietnamization)
Cambodian Incursion 1969-1970
Widening the War
• Strategy of turning over more
of the fighting in Vietnam to the
South Vietnamese while
gradually bringing U.S. ground
troops home
• Nixon hoped this would give
South Vietnamese leaders time
to create a stable, nonCommunist government.
• Nixon began to slowly withdraw
U.S. forces from South
• Antiwar activists opposed the
plan calling for an immediate
end to the war.
• Nixon believed he had the
backing of the silent majority
of Americans.
Laos and Cambodia
• At the same time, Nixon was
secretly expanding the war.
• He ordered the bombing of
Cambodia to disrupt the flow of
supplies on the Ho Chi Minh
• Concealed the air strikes from
the American people—including
members of Congress
• Sent U.S. and ARVN troops into
Cambodia and into Laos to
destroy North Vietnamese army
• Renewed bombing of North
• Nixon hoped to force North
Vietnam to seek peace.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
The US could never stem the flow of
supplies to the Ho Chi Minh Trail
and this was crucial to keep the
guerrilla war going.
Communist forces had been using
what was then known as the Truong
Son Route since at least 1959 to
infiltrate men and materiel through
Laos into South Vietnam. Not only
was it a lifeline, it served as a basing
area and a sanctuary in Laos for
staging operations into South
Vietnam 1970
North Vietnam invasion of Laos and
Cambodia Feb. 21 - defeated Hmong army
and captured Plain of Jarres - created Khmer
Cambodia coup Mar. 18 - neutralist Sihanouk
replaced by pro-U.S. Lon Nol
Nixon saw film Patton Apr. 25 - made decision
next day to invade Cambodia
Cambodia invasion Apr. 30 - 32,000 U.S.
troops attack the Fishhook and Parrot's Beak
for 2 months - destroy NV supplies and set
back NV plans for 2 years - a military success
but political disaster
Kent State demonstration May 4 against
ROTC - 4 students killed
Cooper-Church amendment to limit U.S.
troops in Laos and Cambodia passed Senate
58-37 on June 30
Le Duc Tho and Kissinger met in Paris for
3rd round of talks in June
Hatfield-McGovern amendment to require
complete withdrawal from Vietnam failed in
Vietnam 1971
Winter Soldier investigation Jan. 31-Feb.
2 by John Kerry and the Vietnam
Veterans against the War - 116 vets
testified about atrocities committed by
U.S. in Vietnam.
Operation- Lam Son 719 - ARVN invade
Laos Feb. 8 with U.S. air support - but
failed to close the Ho Chi Minh trail and
showed that Vietnamization had failed.
Kissinger met with Le Duc Tho is secret
talks in house on the Rue Darthe in Feb.
rather than the formal talks at the Hotel
Majestic, but stalled.
Ping-pong team visit to China Apr. 10 Nixon ended of 21-year trade embargo in
New York Times published Pentagon
Papers June 13.
Vietnam 1972
Nixon arrived in China Feb. 21 - Shanghai
North Vietna invasion of Quang Tri Mar. 30
Nixon responded with Op. Linebacker Apr. 6 bombing north of DMZ - B-52 raids on Hanoi and
Haiphong Apr. - 1,300 air strike sorties,
May 1 - low point for Nixon's "Vietnamization"
policy - collapse of SV seemed inevitable
Le Duc Tho and Kissinger met in Paris May 2 - 4th
round of talks fail - talks suspended May 4
Nixon decided May 8 to mine Haiphong harbor and
blockade NV coast - 4 aircraft carriers added to 7th
Fleet - massive bombing and "jugular diplomacy"
Nixon arrived in Moscow May 22 - SALT I treaty
signed May 29 - Brezhnev agreed to help pressure
Le Duc Tho and Kissinger met in Paris July-Aug. 5th round of talks finally made progress - NV
agreed to coalition government and Kissinger
agreed to allow NV
Kissinger TV press conference Oct. 26 - "peace is at
Nixon ultimatum to North Vietnam Dec. 14 to
resume negotiations or "suffer the consequences"
Vietnam 1973
Kissinger and Le Duc Tho signed
treaty Jan. 27 in Paris – POWs released in 60 days, return
began of 591 U.S. POWs
– ceasefire under International
Commission of Control and
Supervision (ICC),
– coalition government in SV to
arrange elections, U.S. aid to SV to
U.S. troops withdrawn by March,
yet bombing continued.
Congress cut off funds for war June
30, to become effective Aug. 15
War Powers Act passed Nov. 7 over
Nixon's veto
One Week's Dead (01:39)
Widening the War
• How did President Nixon’s policies widen
U.S. involvement in the war?
• Recall – What was Vietnamization?
• Analyze – Why do you think Nixon kept
his expansion of the war secret?
• Evaluate – How well did Nixon’s “Madman
Theory” work?
War Protests
• In 1970 Nixon announced that he had ordered troops
into Cambodia.
• Antiwar protests intensified—especially on college
• Antiwar protests erupted into violence.
• Nixon believed that antiwar protesters represented only
a minority of Americans.
• Radical antiwar groups turned to violent measures to
oppose the war.
• More and more Americans began to oppose the war
when they learned about the My Lai massacre and the
Pentagon Papers.
Increasing Protests
Campus Violence
• Kent State
University in Ohio
• 4 students
were killed
and 9 injured
• Jackson State
College in
• 2 students
were killed
and 9
Antiwar Movement
• Polls showed that
fifty percent of
Americans opposed
the war.
• Coalition of clergy,
trade unionists, and
veterans established
a nationwide day of
protest called
Moratorium Day.
• 250,000 protesters
made up the largest
demonstration in
U.S. history.
Radical Protests
• Some antiwar
groups turned to
violent measures.
• The Weathermen
set off more than
5,000 bombs and
carried out the
Days of Rage.
• Most antiwar
protesters did not
support extremist
groups or
Anti-War Protests 1969
In the United States the Cambodian incursion sparked renewed Anti-War
reactions. Demonstrations got louder and stronger.
Nixon appeals to the “Silent Majority” for support of the war.
June 1969- “Sense of the Senate” barred military operations in any
country without Congressional approval.
June 24, 1970- Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
Kent State May 4, 1970
Protests against the Cambodian Incursion at Kent State University in Ohio caused the Governor to call out the National
Guard. A frightened guard unit opened fire at the unarmed protestors killing 4. More that 80 colleges and universities
suspended classes.
Mary Ann Vecchio (01:07)
The Pentagon Papers (03:46)
Rebellion and the Weathermen
The Weathermen, also known as the
Weather Underground Organization,
"revolutionary organization of
communist men and women" splintered
from the Students for a Democratic
Society (SDS).
Weathermen advocated the overthrow of
the government of the United States and
the system of capitalism; toward that
end, they carried out a campaign of
bombings, jailbreaks, and riots.
In October 1969, the Weathermen
organized their first event, called the
"Days of Rage," in Chicago
n 1970, the group issued a Declaration
of War against the United States
government, changing its name to the
"weather underground organization",
adopting fake identities, and pursuing
covert activities only. Broke Timothy
Leary out of Jail.
Increasing Protests
My Lai Massacre
Pentagon Papers
• Troops under Lieutenant
William Calley killed at least
450 men, women, and
children in the village of My
Lai while on a search-anddestroy mission.
• A collection of secret
government documents that
traced the history of U.S.
military involvement in
Vietnam since the Truman
• No Vietcong were found in
the village.
• Revealed that government
officials had been misleading
the American people about
the war for years
• The My Lai massacre was
kept quiet at first, but former
soldiers began talking about
• This atrocity intensified the
divisions between war
supporters and opponents.
• Calley was convicted of
murder and sentenced to life
in prison; he was paroled in
• Daniel Ellsberg leaked the
papers to the press.
• Ellsberg originally supported
the war, but then concluded
that few South Vietnamese
civilians supported the U.S.backed government.
Continuing War (04:22)
My Lai Massacre - March 16, 1968
My Lai Massacre - March 16, 1968
American soldiers under the command of Lt. Calley
entered the village of My Lai on a Search and Seizure
By the end of the day the soldiers had slaughter between
175-400 men, women and children of the village.
Lt. Calley called the victims- non humans, an enemy with
whom one could not speak or reason.
Lt. Calley had no remorse, and said simply that he was
following orders- the “mere gook rule”, which meant he
could be a self appointed Judge, jury and executioner.
Due to some large losses in Charlie Company, Calley had
said the Capt. had given orders to treat all native as the
enemy and destroy everyone and everything in My Lai.
Often prisoners in such cases were used as guides over
trails that could be booby trapped or to walk first through
mine fields. If they were too slow they were shot.
The orders of the day were common- burn the houses, kill
the animals, destroy food and wells and round up the
people. Lt. Calley was found guilty and served 1/3 of the
sentence, and received a dishonorable discharge.
Increasing the Protests
• Recall – What happened at Kent State?
• Summarize – Why did students and
faculty at a number of universities go on
• Develop – Do you think President Nixon’s
comment about not letting the minority
dictate his actions in Vietnam was valid?
Explain your answer.
Increasing the Protests
• Recall – Who were the weathermen?
• Summarize – What was the My Lai
• Evaluate – How do you think the My Lai
massacre and the Pentagon Papers
influenced American opinion about the
U.S. Involvement in Vietnam
Senator from South Dakota who criticized war
Insisted that the Vietnam War be brought to an immediate
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
McGovern hoped the ratification of this amendment would
boost his election chances.
Nixon stressed law and order at home and told voters he
would end the war.
Kissinger announced a breakthrough in the peace talks
just weeks before the election.
The announcement helped Nixon win by a landslide.
A Peace Agreement
Nixon tried to force North Vietnam to make peace
concessions by ordering the so-called Christmas
bombing. It failed to work.
Officials from North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the
United States finally reached an agreement in January
The United States agreed to withdraw all of its troops and
help rebuild Vietnam. Both sides agreed to release all
prisoners of war.
The agreement did not settle the political future of South
Vietnam—the key issue behind the war from the start.
End of U.S. Involvement
• How did Nixon achieve an end to U.S.
involvement in Vietnam?
• Recall – What was the twenty-sixith
• Analyze – What was the effect of Kissinger’s
comment that peace with Vietnam was at hand?
• Evaluate – What did the “Christmas bombing”
The Vietnam War’s Legacy
• Two years after U.S. troops were withdrawn, North
Vietnamese troops invaded South Vietnam.
• After a short amount of fighting, South Vietnam
– The U.S. military rushed to evacuate Americans still working in
– Some 130,000 South Vietnamese were also evacuated and flown
to the United States.
• After two decades of “temporary” division, Vietnam was
reunited under a Communist government.
• In 1975, Communist forces called the Khmer Rouge
gained control of Cambodia.
– Vietnam forces invaded Cambodia in 1979, overthrew the Khmer
Rouge, and occupied the country till 1989.
Fall of Vietnam and Indochina- 1975
Fall of Saigon Apr. 29, 1975- Ambassador
Graham Martin and 7100 U.S. and SV
personnel evacuated Apr. 30, 1975
Khmer Rouge – Pol Pot
Pathet Lao
Victory of North Vietnam 1975
• Collapse of ARVN and South Vietnamese Government- The South
Vietnamese Army withdrew from the Central Highland, leaving Saigon
open to invasion from the North Vietnamese. The United States refused
to provide additional aid
• April 21, the South Vietnamese president resigned and fled
• Fall of Siagon- On April 30, 1975, Saigon fell to North Vietnamese tanks.
• The End-On April 30, just as the last U.S. helicopter was lifting off, the
North Vietnamese Army swept into Saigon
Cambodia and Khmer Rouge
Pol Pot
The Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, killed
close to 1.7 million people in the mid- to
late 1970s.
Money, private property, education and
religion were abolished and Cambodia's
towns and cities were emptied as the
population was forced into massive,
unworkable agricultural collectives.
In addition to death from work
starvation and exhaustion, the regime
killed anyone suspected with
connections with either the defeated
Khmer Republic government or the
previous Sihanouk government, as well
as intellectuals (Pol Pot defined anyone
who wore glasses as automatically an
intellectual), professionals, and also
ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams,
Laotians, and Thai.
Killing Fields
• Killing Fields- 1975
– cities emptied or people sent to the countryside. Phnom
– new rules- religion, money and private ownership were
all banned; communications with the outside world
elimated; family relationships dismantled. All previous
rights and responsibilities were thrown out the window.
– New People with education, doctor, teacher, lawyers, etc.
were killed. They chose to live in cities and were easy to
– The CIA estimated that between 50,000 and 100,000
people were executed by the Khmer Rouge, but
executions represented only a minority of the death toll,
which mostly came from starvation.
• Boat People- refuges.
• Dec. 28, 1978- Vietnamese invasion of CambodiaLiberators or Invaders? The end of the Khmer
Killing Fields
2:41 min.
End of Laos 1975
Years of bitter revolutionary struggle, ending
with Americas secret war between 1964 and
1973, left Laos the most bombed country in
the history of warfare.
Fall of Laos- In 1975 the communist Pathet
Lao took control of the government.
Pathet Lao was a communist, nationalist
political movement and organization in Laos.
Hmong rebels
CIA secret army- left behind
The Legacy of the Pol Pot Regime and Khmer Rouge (01:46)
The Legacy of the War
Southeast Asia
Political Impact
• 635,000 South
Vietnamese died;
Vietcong and NVA
war dead equaled
1 million
• 58,000 Americans
were killed; 600
were held as
POWs; 2,500
soldiers reported
MIA; 300,000
• United States failed
to prevent
Communists from
taking over South
• Severe
damage from
bombs and
• More than 1.5
million South
Vietnamese fled
the country after
the fall of Saigon.
• Experienced a
negative reception
upon return
• Trouble
readjusting to
civilian life (posttraumatic stress
• Spent more than
$150 billion on the
• Changed how many
Americans viewed
• Congress passed
the War Powers
Act in 1973.
War Powers Act - 1973
• To ensure that Congress and the President share in
making decisions that may get the U.S. involved in
• Requires the President to consult with Congress prior to
the start of any hostilities.
• Under the act, the President can only send combat
troops into battle or into areas where ''imminent''
hostilities are likely, for 60 days without either a
declaration of war by Congress or a specific
Congressional mandate.
• The President can extend the time the troops are in the
combat area for 30 extra days, without Congressional
approval, for a total of 90 days.
The Legacy of Vietnam
• What was the war’s legacy in the United
States and in Vietnam?
• Recall – Who were the Khmer Rouge?
• Analyze – How did the war change the
makeup of the U.S. population?
• Elaborate – Why do you think many
refugees were willing to travel across the
sea on tiny, overcrowded boats in order to
leave Vietnam?
The Legacy of Vietnam
• Recall – How may U.S. soldiers died or
were wounded in Vietnam?
• Analyze – Why did many veterans
experience ongoing problems from their
service in Vietnam?
• Contrast – How were Vietnam War
veterans treated differently than veterans
of previous wars?
The Legacy of Vietnam
• Recall – Who was Maya Ying Lin?
• Explain – How did the War Powers Act of
1973 limit presidential authority?
• Analyze – Why do you think Vietnam
veterans led the effort to establish normal
relations with Vietnam?