“A great man is one who can make a small man feel great, and perform great”
• Motivation is an internal feeling and a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. Motivation is next to directing / leading. Managers can motivate their subordinates while guiding them. • Motivating means encouraging people to take more initiative and interest in the work assigned.
• It is an art of getting things done willingly from others.
• Understand past, present and future concepts / trends.
• Develop employees desire to strive for excellence.
• Understand how YOU influence; your leadership style.
• Use feedback performance.
more precisely, linking it to
• Learn how to offer criticism in a way which ensures that it is heard.
• Apply models and methods for measurable results.
• Problem solve and practice what you learn
• The act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act.
• The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation. (Harmer, 2001)
Steers and Porter(1991)
Complex Psychological Physical Unique to each and every person Context sensitive Not fully understood
• Intrinsic Motivation • Extrinsic Motivation
Defined as self-respect of accomplishment and personal growth. That is, the emotional and personal benefits of the job itself are known as intrinsic rewards. -Ellis Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.
The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task.
• Competence and autonomy are the important issues on intrinsic motivation.
• Social-contextual events such as feedback, communications, rewards which cause feelings of competence foster intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000) • While positive performance feedback increases intrinsic motivation, negative performance feedback decreases it.
• Extrinsic Motivation is said to be less effective because it comes from outside the person. External reinforcer's, for instance, are usually in the form of control.
• is concerned with the performance of an activity to succeed in getting separable outcomes.
Ryan and Deci (2000) • "Tangible benefits" related to job such as salary, fringe benefits and job security are known as extrinsic motivation or called extrinsic rewards.
` Latham ( 1998)
1. Self-Improvement Motivation
If you believe the task at hand will improve your character, appearance or financial condition and these self-improvements are highly desirable to you, you will experience significant motivation to perform even unpleasant parts of the process necessary to reach the goal. How desirable the end improvements are to you will determine the level of motivation you will experience.
2. Achievement Motivation
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it.
3. Internal Motivation
Behaviour does not come without its own rewards. the end goal is not a visible or external thing, but more internal and psychological. The achievement of these goals – by itself also correctly seen as a reward – is in general not visible to other persons.
4. Affiliation Motivation
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.
5. Competence Motivation
Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.
6. Power Motivation
It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.
7. Attitude Motivation
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
Emphasis on what motivates individuals.
• Maslow’s need Hierarchy • Macgregor's Theories X & Y • Herzberg’s two factors theory
Emphasis on actual process of motivation • Three needs Theory ( McClelland) • Goal-setting Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Designing Motivating theory • Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory
1.ABRAHAM MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
• Mr. Abraham Harold Maslow suggested his Theory of Human Motivation in 1943 • Needs were categories as five levels of lower and higher-order needs.
• Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.
• Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.
Maslow's theory is based on the following two principles: Deficit principle: A satisfied need no longer motivates behavior because people act to satisfy deprived needs.
Progression principle: The five needs he identified exist in a hierarchy, which means that a need at any level only comes into play after a lower-level need has been satisfied.
• Need is defined as a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person feels the compulsion to satisfy.
• This need can create tensions that can influence a person's work attitudes and behaviors.
• Maslow formed a theory based on his definition of need that proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order.
• His premise is that only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a satisfied need is not a motivator .
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs Higher Level Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Creative and challenging work Participation in decision making Esteem needs Lower Level Needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Job flexibility and autonomy Responsibility of an important job Promotion to higher status job Praise and recognition from boss To Satisfy, Offer: Friendly coworkers Interaction with customers Pleasant supervisor Safe working conditions Job security Base compensation and benefits Rest and refreshment breaks Physical comfort on the job Reasonable work hours
2.DOUGLAS McGREGOR'S - THEORY OF MOTIVATION
The eminent psychologist
has given his theory of motivation called Theory X and Theory Y
:- based on traditional assumptions about employees. Here, the conventional approach of management is used as a base.
Theory Y :-
based on modern or progressive or professional approach. Here, the assumptions about employees are quite different.
The average human being is inherently lazy by nature and desires to work as little as possible.
He avoids accepting responsibility and prefers to be led or directed by some other.
He is self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs.
He has little ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led but wants security.
He is not very intelligent and lacks creativity in solving organizational problems.
He by nature resists to change of any type.
In the case of such employees, self-motivation is just not possible. They will work only when there is constant supervision on them. A manager has to persuade, punish or reward such workers in order to achieve organizational goals.
Work is as natural as play, provided the work environment is favorable.
People can be self-directed and creative at work if they are motivated properly.
Self-control on the part of people is useful for achieving organizational goal. External control and threats of punishment alone do not bring out efforts towards organizational objectives.
People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs.
An average human being learns under proper conditions. He is also willing to accept responsibility
3. HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
In his two-factor theory, Herzberg identifies two sets of factors that impact motivation in the workplace:
include salary, job security, working conditions, organizational policies, and technical quality of supervision.
Although these factors do not motivate employees, they can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing.
Something as simple as adding music to the office place or implementing a no-smoking policy can make people less dissatisfied with these aspects of their work.
include such things as responsibility, achievement, growth opportunities, and feelings of recognition, and are the key to job satisfaction and motivation. For example, managers can find out what people really do in their jobs and make improvements, thus increasing job satisfaction and performance.
Following Herzberg's two-factor theory, managers need to ensure that hygiene factors are adequate and then build satisfiers into jobs.
Achievement Growth Recognition Responsibility
Compensation Fringes Supervision Work Conditions
ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) theory
is built upon Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
are desires for physiological and material well-being. (In terms of Maslow's model, existence needs include physiological and safety needs)
are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. (In terms of Maslow's model, relatedness correspondence to social needs)
are desires for continued psychological growth and development. (In terms of Maslow's model, growth needs include esteem and self-realization needs)
TAYLOR’S THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917)
put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following: • Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control • Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks • Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.
• Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay. • As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximize • their productivity. Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. • The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production.
6.MAYO’S THEORY OF HUMAN RELATIONS
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored).
• He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
• Mayo conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne factory of the Western Electric Company in Chicago
• He isolated two groups of women workers and studied the effect on their productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting and working conditions.
• He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or other conditions became progressively worse • What he actually discovered surprised him: whatever the change in lighting or working conditions, the productivity levels of the workers improved or remained the same.
From this Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by:
between managers and workers ( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback)
Greater manager involvement
in employees working lives ( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving)
Working in groups or teams.
( Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams)
McClelland proposed his Achievement Motivation Theory (Also called Manifest Need Theory).
According to him, there are certain needs that are learned and socially acquired as the individual interacts with the environment.
McClelland classified such needs into three broad categories. These are (a) Need for power, (b) Need for affiliation, and (c) Need for achievement.
• Working conditions • Company policies • Job security • Pay and benefits • Relationships with coworkers • Supervision • Status
Creating a motivating climate
• • • Organizations are more likely to instill ‘want to’ attitudes in people if they nurture three factors, namely
beliefs and an
People are likely to adopt the values of others who help them meet their needs for belongingness and competence and autonomy.
People need to be valued by others, surrounded by a cohesive peer group and given a sense of belonging and control, the stimulation of clear and challenging goals and recognition for whatever they achieve.
• • • • A sense of connection with the organisation is more likely to develop a sense of loyalty to and identify with it. So efforts to promote social engagement are essential.
Current models of motivation tend to concentrate on cognitive processes, assuming that competence is the primary factor.
Social goals are strong predictors of success and the promotion of socially responsive behaviour often results in higher performance.
The social climate is a powerful motivator of all aspects of our behaviour.
• Working climates can be categorised using four types of autonomy. They can be epitomised by an ‘over-protective’ climate, that in turn encourages restricted workers.
• Others can have an ‘autonomy-crushing’ climate, resulting in no sense of autonomy. The more accountability is stressed over autonomy, the more managers will download pressure to colleagues through a command climate that emphasises control.
Thirdly, an over-competitive ‘prove yourself’ atmosphere marks the ‘exposing’ climate where confusion and provocation contribute to the development of a distorted sense of autonomy.
• • • Feedback is an essential ingredient to provide information that lets others know how they are doing.
It is the motivation power-tool yet often the least well used. it is about giving information about progress to increase self-efficacy not about encouraging arrogance.
Highly motivating people praise others’ effort and how they tackle their work and so make colleagues feel responsible for success.