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HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Chapter
Terminating the Incident
12
Terminating
The Incident
Textbook Page
555
Chapter 12 - 1
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Objectives
•
•
•
List The Five Basic Activities That Should Be
Completed As Part Of The Termination Process.
List And Describe At Least Three Criteria For
Terminating The Emergency Phase Of A
Hazardous Materials Incident.
Identify The Steps To Be Taken To Transfer
Command/Control Of The Incident For Postemergency Response Operations [NFPA 4727.6.1].
Chapter 12 - 2
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Objectives
• Given A Simulated Hazardous Materials Incident,
The Hazardous Materials Technician Shall [NFPA
472-6.6.1 And 7.6.2]
• Describe The Three Components Of An Effective
Debriefing.
• Describe The Key Topics Of An Effective Debriefing.
• Describe When A Debriefing Should Take Place.
• Describe Who Should Be Involved In A Debriefing.
• Identify The Procedures For Conducting The Incident
Debriefing.
Chapter 12 - 3
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Objectives
•
Given A Simulated Hazardous Materials Incident,
The Hazardous Materials Technician Shall [NFPA
472-6.6.2 And 7.6.3]
•
•
•
•
Describe The Three Components Of An Effective Critique
Describe Who Should Be Involved In A Critique.
Describe Why An Effective Critique Is Necessary After A
Hazardous Materials Incident.
Describe Which Written Documents Should Be Prepared
As A Result Of A Critique.
Chapter 12 - 4
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Objectives
•
Given A Simulated Hazardous Materials Incident, The Hazardous
Materials Technician Shall Complete The Reporting And
Documentation Requirements Consistent With The Local
Emergency Response Plan And Standard Operating Procedures,
And Shall Meet The Following Requirements [NFPA 472-6.6.3 And
7.6.4]:
• Describe The Importance Of Documentation For A Hazardous
Materials Incident, Including Training Records, Personnel
Exposure Records, Incident Reports, And Critique Reports.
• Identify The Steps In Keeping An Activity Log And Exposure
Records.
Chapter 12 - 5
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Objectives
• Identify The Steps To Be Taken In Compiling Incident Reports
That Meet Federal, State, Local, And Organizational
Requirements.
• Identify The Requirements For Compiling Hot Zone Entry And
Exit Logs.
• Identify The Requirements For Compiling Personal Protective
Equipment Logs.
• Identify The Requirements For Filing Documents And
Maintaining Records.
• Identify The Procedures Required For Legal Documentation
And Chain Of Custody/ Continuity.
Chapter 12 - 6
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Introduction
• Termination Is The Final Step In The Eight Step
Incident Management Process©.
• It Represents The Transition Between The
Termination Of The Emergency Phase And The
Initiation Of Clean-up, Restoration And Recovery
Operations.
Chapter 12 - 7
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Introduction
• Termination Is The Final Step In The Eight
Step Process
• It Is The Transition Between The Termination
Of The Incident And The Initiation Of The
Clean Up Phase
Chapter 12 - 8
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Introduction
• Terminating The Incident
Usually Consists Of
Five Distinct Activities:
• Termination Of The Emergency Phase Of The Incident
• Transfer Of On-scene Command From The Incident
Commander Of The Emergency Phase To The Individual
Responsible For Managing And Coordinating Postemergency Response Operations (PERO)
• Incident Debriefing
• Post-incident Analysis
• Critique
Chapter 12 - 9
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Declaring The Incident Terminated
• Declare An Emergency “Terminated” Is An
Important Part Of The Hazmat Response.
• Hazardous Materials Incidents Sometimes Slowly
Creep From The Emergency Phase To The
Restoration And Recovery Phase.
• The Incident Commander Should Have Answers To
The Following Questions Before The Incident Is
Declared Terminated:
• Is The Incident Scene Dangerous?
• Is The Incident Scene Unsafe?
• Is The Incident Scene Safe?
Chapter 12 - 10
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Transferring Responsibility of The Incident Scene
• The Incident Commander
Should Meet With The Senior
Representatives From The
Agencies Or Contractors Taking
Over To Formally Hand Off The
Incident Scene.
• The IC Should Make It Clear That
The Emergency Response Phase
Is Being Terminated And Then
Formally Transfer Command To
The Post Emergency Response
Operations (PERO) Incident
Commander.
Chapter 12 - 11
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Transferring Responsibility of The Incident Scene
• The Transfer Briefing Should Cover:
• The Nature Of The Emergency
• Actions Taken To Stabilize And
Resolve The Emergency
• Names Of Hazardous Materials
Involved
• Hazards And Risks That Were
Mitigated And Those That Still Exist
• Safety Procedures
• Relevant Documentation And Points
Of Contact
Chapter 12 - 12
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Transferring Responsibility of The Incident Scene
• If The Incident Has Legal Or
Criminal Implications Involving
Potential Documentation Or
Evidence, It Is Critical That
Chain-of-custody Procedures Be
Followed.
• Finally, Before Leaving The
Scene, The IC Should Document
The Time Of Departure, Names,
Companies, And Contact
Information For The Personnel
Assuming Control Of The Scene.
Chapter 12 - 13
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Incident Debriefing
• The Purpose Of The Incident Debriefing In The
Field Is To Funnel Accurate Information
Concerning The Hazards And Risks Involved
Directly To The People Who May Have Been:
• Exposed
• Contaminated
• Or In Some Way Affected By The Response.
• The Debriefing Is Not A Critique Of The Incident.
559
Chapter 12 - 14
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Incident Debriefing
• An Effective Debriefing Should:
• Inform Responders Exactly What
Hazmats They Were (Potentially)
Exposed To And Their Signs And
Symptoms.
• Identify Damaged Equipment Requiring
Servicing, Replacement, Or Repair.
• Identify Equipment Or Expended
Supplies That Will Require Specialized
Decontamination Or Disposal.
• Identify Unsafe Site Conditions That Will
Impact The Clean-up And Recovery
Phase.
Chapter 12 - 15
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Incident Debriefing
• Assign Information Gathering
Responsibilities For A Post-incident
Analysis And Critique.
• Assess The Need For A Critical
Incident Stress Debriefing.
• Assign A Point Of Contact For Incident
Related Issues (Concern For Delayed
Symptoms).
• Debriefings Should Begin As Soon
As The Emergency Phase Of The
Operation Is Completed.
Chapter 12 - 16
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Conducting Debriefings
• Debriefings Should Be Conducted
In Areas That Are Free From
Distractions.
• The Debriefing Should Be
Conducted By One Person Acting
As The Leader.
• Debriefings Longer Than 15
Minutes Are Probably Too Long.
Chapter 12 - 17
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Conducting Debriefings
• Debriefings Should Cover Certain
Subjects, In The Following Order:
• Health Information
• Equipment And Apparatus Exposure
Review
• A Follow-up Contact Person
• Problems Requiring Immediate Action
• Thank You
Chapter 12 - 18
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Post Incident Analysis
• The Post Incident Analysis (PIA) Is The
Reconstruction Of The Incident To Establish A Clear
Picture Of The Events That Took Place During The
Emergency.
• A PIA Is Conducted To:
• Assure That The Incident Has Been Properly Documented
And Reported To The Right Regulatory Agencies.
• Determine The Level Of Financial Responsibility (I.E., Who
Pays?).
561
Chapter 12 - 19
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Post Incident Analysis …
• A PIA Is Conducted To:
• Establish A Clear Picture Of The Emergency Response For
Further Study.
• Focus On The General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model.
• Provide A Foundation For The Development Of Formal
Investigations, Which Are Usually Conducted To Establish The
Probable Cause Of The Accident .
Chapter 12 - 20
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• The Post Incident Analysis Begins With The
Designation Of One Person (Or Office) To Collect
Information About The Response.
• The PIA Should Focus On Six Key Topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Command And Control
Tactical Operations
Resources
Support Services
Plans And Procedures
Training
Chapter 12 - 21
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• The PIA Should Attempt To Gather Factual
Information Concerning The Response As Soon As
Possible.
• The Longer The Delay In Gathering Information,
The Less Likely It Will Be Accurate And Available.
• Suggested Sources Of Information Include The
Following:
• Incident Reporting Forms.
• Activity Logs, Entry Logs And Personnel Exposure Logs.
Chapter 12 - 22
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• Photographs, Videos, Maps, Diagrams, And Sketches. If
Photographs Or Videotapes Are Taken, Copies Should
Also Be Obtained For The Incident File.
• Notes And Audio Recordings From The Incident Command
Post.
• If Future Litigation Is A Concern, A Photo/Video Log
Should Be Made Recording The Following Information:
• Time, Date, Location, Direction, And Weather Conditions.
Chapter 12 - 23
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• Description Or Identification Of Subject And Relevance Of
Photographs Or Video.
• Name, Telephone Number, And Social Security Number Of
The Photographer.
• Results Of Air Monitoring And Sampling, Including Types Of
Instruments Used And Calibration Information.
• Incident Command Charts, Notes, And Checklists.
• Business Cards Or Notes From Organizations Or Company
Representatives.
• Tape Recordings From The 911/Communications
Center(s) Involved.
Chapter 12 - 24
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• Videotape Recordings Made By The Media. Obtain The
Un-shown, Unedited Video Taken By The Media Within
The First 24 Hours After The Incident. Only The Video
Used In The Broadcast Is Archived.
• Photographs, Film, And Videotape Taken By ERP Or
Bystanders.
• Interviews Of Witnesses Conducted By Investigators That
May Help Establish Where Responders Were Located At
The Incident Scene.
Chapter 12 - 25
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• Responder Interviews
• Verification Of Shipping Documents Or Material Safety
Data Sheets.
• Owner/Operator Information.
• Chemical Hazard Information From Checklists.
• Lists Of Apparatus, Personnel, And Equipment On Scene.
Chapter 12 - 26
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
The Post Incident Analysis Process
• As Soon As Practical, Construct A Brief
Chronological Review Of Who Did What, When,
And Where During The Incident.
• Once All Available Data Have Been Assembled And
A Rough Draft Report Developed, The Entire
Package Should Be Reviewed By Key Responders
To Verify That The Available Facts Are Arranged
Properly And Actually Took Place.
Chapter 12 - 27
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Incident Reporting
• Each Emergency Response Organization Has Its
Own Unique Requirements For Recording And
Reporting Hazmat Incidents.
• These Requirements May Be Self-imposed As
Administrative And Management Controls.
• They May Be Mandatory Under Federal Or State
Laws.
Chapter 12 - 28
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Incident Reporting
• For Private Shippers, Carriers, And Manufacturers, The
Regulatory Reporting Requirements For Leaks, Spills,
And Other Releases Of Specified Chemicals Into The
Environment Are Significant. These Include:
• Section 304 Of The Superfund Amendments And Reauthorization
Act (SARA, Title III)
• Section 103 Of The Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation And Liability Act (CERCLA)
• 40 CFR Part 110—discharge Of Oil
• 40 CFR Part 112—oil Pollution Prevention
• CERCLA
• Any Additional Reporting Requirements
Chapter 12 - 29
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Critique
• Many Injuries And Fatalities Have Been Prevented
As A Result Of Lessons Learned Through The
Critique Process.
• OSHA Requires That A Critique Be Conducted Of
Every Hazardous Materials Emergency Response.
• The Primary Purpose Of A Critique Is To Develop
Recommendations For Improving The Emergency
Response System Rather Than To Find Fault With
The Performance Of Individuals.
566
Chapter 12 - 30
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Critique
• A Good Critique Promotes
• Emergency Response Operations That Are Systemdependent Rather Than People-dependent Organizations
• A Willingness To Cooperate Through Teamwork
• Improvement Of Safe Operating Procedures
• Sharing Information Among Emergency Response
Organizations
• Never Use A Critique To Assign Blame
• Use It As A Valuable Learning Experience
Chapter 12 - 31
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Critique
• The Critique Leader Is The Crucial Player In Making
The Critique Session A Positive Learning
Experience
• The Critique Leader Should:
•
•
•
•
Control The Critique
Ensure That Direct Questions Receive Direct Answers.
Ensure That All Participants Play By The Critique Rules
Ensure That Individual Observations Are Shared With The
Group.
Chapter 12 - 32
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Critique
• Publish An Agenda
For The Critique
• Include The Order Of
Presentation So That The Participants Know When
Their Turn Is Coming
• At The End Of The Critique The Leader Should
Sum Up Some Of The Positive Things Learned
From The Critique.
• Thank Everyone For Their Response To The Event
And For Their Involvement In Making The Next
Response Even More Successful.
Chapter 12 - 33
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Large-scale Emergency Critique
• Participant-level Critique.
• After Explaining The Rules For The Critique, The
Critique Leader Calls On Each Key Player To
Make An Individual Statement Relevant To His
Or Her On-scene Activities And What He Or She
Feels Are The Major Issues.
• Depending Upon Time, More Detail May Be
Added. There Should Be No Interruptions During
This Phase.
• For Obvious Time Reasons, The Leader Should
Limit This Phase Of The Process To Two Or
Three Minutes Per Person.
Chapter 12 - 34
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Large-Scale Emergency Critique
• Operations-level Critique
• After Determining A Feel For The Group, The Leader
Moves On To A Structured Review Of Emergency
Operations.
• Through A Spokesperson, Each Section/Sector
Presents An Activity Summary Of Challenges
Encountered, Unanticipated Events, And Lessons
Learned.
• Each Presentation Should Not Exceed Five Minutes.
• Group-level Critique.
• At The End Of The Operations Level Critique, The
Leader Moves The Meeting Into A Wider And More
Open Forum.
Chapter 12 - 35
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Large-Scale Emergency Critique
• When Closing, The Leader Should Summarize The
More Important Observations And Conclusions
Revealed By The Participants
• Critique Reports Should Be Short And To The Point
• Formal Critique Reports Should Be Circulated So
Everyone Can Share The Lessons Learned
• Lessons Learned or Identified Through The Critique
Process Should Be Converted Into Changes And
Improvements To The Emergency Response
System.
Chapter 12 - 36
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Operations Security (OPSEC) Issues
• In Today’s Environment We Need To Be Concerned
About How Criminals And Terrorists May Use The
Information That We Generate In Written Critiques
Or After Action Reports.
• When We Study The Lessons Learned From Major
Hazmat And WMD Incidents, We Have An
Obligation To Share What We Know. But We Don’t
Need To Share Everything We Know With
Everyone.
Chapter 12 - 37
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Operations Security (OPSEC) Issues
• A Reasonable Approach To This Problem Is To Limit
Information Concerning Vulnerabilities And
Weaknesses Learned From Critiquing The Incident
To The People Who Really Need To Know It.
• Sensitive Information That Can Be Used By
Criminals And Terrorists To Hurt The Public Or
Target First Responders Should Be Edited From
Critique Reports That Are Intended For The
General Public.
Chapter 12 - 38
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Liability Issues
• Many Managers Express Concerns That The Critique Process
Can Expose Weaknesses That Can Be Exploited To Build A
Liability Case
• Nevertheless, Organizations Must Balance The Potential
Negatives Against The Benefits That Are Gained Through The
Critique Process.
• Remember — The Reason For Doing The Critique In The First
Place Is To Improve Your Operations.
• An Organization That Does Not Improve, Doesn’t Meet The
Standard Of Care, And Performs Poorly Makes Itself A Target
For Lawsuits.
Chapter 12 - 39
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Terminating the Incident
Managing The Incident
Liability Issues
• There Are Five Primary Reasons For Liability
Problems In Emergency Response Work.
•
•
•
•
Problems With Planning.
Problems With Training.
Problems With Identification Of Hazards.
Problems With Duty To Warn.
• Problems With Negligent Operations.
• A Little Common Sense Goes A Long Way When
Developing A Critique Policy.
• Don’t Let Attorneys Make Management Decisions
For Your Organization.
Chapter 12 - 40
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Summary
• Termination Is The Final Step In The Eight Step
Incident Management Process©.
• Terminating The Incident Usually Consists Of Five
Distinct Activities:
• Declaring That The Incident Is “Terminated” Either By
Radio Or In A Face-to-face Meeting
• Officially Transferring Responsibility Of The Incident Scene
To Another Agency Or Contractor
• Incident Debriefing
• Post-incident Analysis
• Critique
Chapter 12 - 41
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Summary
• The Incident Debriefing Is Done At The Incident
Scene, Last Less Than 15 Minutes, And Focuses
On Safety And Health Exposure Issues.
• The Post-incident Analysis Is Conducted After The
Incident Is Over And Is A Focused Effort To Gather
Information Concerning What Actually Happened,
Why It Happened, And Who The Responsible
Parties Are.
• The Critique Is Usually Conducted Several Days
After The Incident Is Over.
Chapter 12 - 42
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
Summary
• The Critique Process Can Reveal Critical
Information About Our Weaknesses And
Vulnerabilities That Can Be Exploited By Criminals
And Terrorists.
• A Strong Critique Program That Is Designed To
Improve The Emergency Response System
Reduces Potential Liability By Helping To Ensure
That The Organization Meets A Standard Of Care.
• The Threat Of Potential Lawsuits Is A Poor Excuse
For Not Having A Strong Critique Program
Chapter 12 - 43
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
Managing The Incident
Terminating the Incident
O.T. and The Kid
Chapter 12 - 44
© Hazardous Materials - Managing the Incident 2005
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