Transformational Leadership Approach

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Transformational
Leadership Approach
AGED 3153
Be gentle and you can be bold; be frugal
and you can be liberal; avoid putting
yourself before others and you can
become a leader among men.
~ Lao Tzu
Overview
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Transformational leadership approach perspective
A model of TL
TL factors
Full range of leadership model
Additive effects of TL
Other transformational leadership perspectives
How does the transformational approach work?
Transactional vs. Transforming
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Burns
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Occurs when one person takes the initiative
in making contact with others for the
purpose of an exchange of valued things
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Occurs when one or more persons engage
with others in such a way that leaders and
followers raise one another to higher levels
of motivation and morality
Pseudotransformational
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Personalized leadership
Describes leaders who are transforming,
but in negative ways
Leaders who are
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self-consumed
Exploitive
Power oriented
Warped moral values
Examples:
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Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Jim Jones
Transformational Leadership
Approach Description
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“New leadership” paradigm – 1980s
Treats followers as complete human
beings
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assessment of motives
satisfying their needs
Moves followers to accomplish beyond
expectations
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often incorporates charismatic and visionary
leadership
Transformational Leadership
Approach Description
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emotions
values
ethics
standards
long-term goals
Leader plays pivotal role in precipitating
change
Followers and leaders are bound in the
process
Types of Leadership Defined
Burns (1978)
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Attempted to link roles of leadership
and followership
Two types of leadership
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Transformational
Charisma
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Weber - 1947
Charisma
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personality characteristic
gives superhuman/
exceptional powers
reserved for a few
is of divine origin
person treated as a
leader
Followers play role in
validating charisma
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House - 1976
theory of charismatic
leadership
 A special gift select
individuals possess that
gives them the capacity
to do extraordinary
things
Unique personal &
behavioral
characteristics
Model of Transformational Leadership
Bass (1985)
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Expanded and refined original version
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More attention to followers’ needs
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Motivates followers beyond the expected by:
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raising consciousness
transcending self-interest
addressing higher-level needs
Incorporates seven factors
Leadership Factors
Transformational
Factor 1
Idealized Influence
Charisma
Factor 2
Inspirational
Motivational
Factor 3
Intellectual
Stimulation
Factor 4
Individualized
Consideration
Transactional
Factor 6
Mgmt. by Exception
Active & Passive
Corrective Transactions
Factor 5
Contingent Reward
Constructive
Transactions
Nonleadership
Factor 7
Laissez-Faire
Nontransactional
Transformational Leadership
Factors
1.
Individualized Influence
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Charisma
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Describes leaders
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Inspirational Motivation
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Inspiration
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Describes leaders
who act as strong role
models for followers
Leader behaviors:
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2.
increase moral/ ethical
conduct standards
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Leader behaviors:
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use symbols/
emotional appeals to
focus group
“do the right thing”
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who communicate high
expectations
provide vision and sense of
mission
enhanced team spirit
Transformational Leadership Factors
3.
Intellectual Stimulation
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Describes leaders
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Indiv. Consideration
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stimulate followers to
be creative/ innovative
Leader behaviors:
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4.
challenge beliefs and
values
supports thinking on
own
careful problem solving
Describes leaders
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provide a supportive
climate
Leader behaviors:
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coaching & advising
assist individuals in
becoming self-actualized
use delegation
Transformational Leaders
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Leaders who exhibit TL:
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have a strong set of values & ideals
are effective in motivating followers to
support greater good over self-interest
Transactional Leadership
Factors
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Management by Exception
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involves corrective criticism,
negative feedback,
negative reinforcement
Two forms
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watch followers closely
identify mistakes/ rule
violations
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intervenes only after
standards have not been
met or problems have
arisen
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Contingent Reward
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exchange process
Effort by followers is
exchanged for specified
rewards
Nonleadership Factor
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Laissez-Faire
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The absence of leadership.
 hands-off,
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let-things-ride approach
Refers to a leader who:
abdicates responsibility
 delays decisions
 gives no feedback
 makes little effort to help followers
satisfy their needs
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Full Range of Leadership Model
Effective
II
IM
IS
IC
CR
Passive
MBE
LF
Ineffective
Active
Additive Effect of TL
Transformational Leadership
Individualized
Influence
+ Inspirational
Motivation
+ Intellectual
Stimulation
+ Individualized
Consideration
Transactional
Leadership
Contingent
Reward
+
Management by
Exception
Expected
Outcomes
Performance
Beyond
Expectations
Other Transformational
Perspectives
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Bennis & Nanus (1985)
Four Leader Transformation Strategies
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Clear vision of organization’s future state
• believable future
Social architect of organization
• shape/form shared meetings
Create trust in organization
• make position known and stand by it
Creatively deploy themselves through positive selfregard
• know strengths & weaknesses and emphasizes
strengths
Other Transformational
Perspectives
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Kouzes and Posner
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Five fundamental practices
Model the way
 Inspire a shared vision
 Challenge the process
 Enable others to act
 Encourage the heart
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How does the transformational
leadership approach work?
Focus of TL
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Describes how leaders can initiate,
develop, and carry out significant changes
in organizations
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Focus of Transformational Leaders
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empower and nurture followers
stimulate change by becoming strong role
models for followers
create a vision
act as change agents
are social architects
What are the strengths of
transformational leadership?
What are the weaknesses of
transformational leadership?
How do we apply
transformational leadership?
Summary
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Describes how leaders can initiate,
develop, and carry out significant
changes in organizations
Focus of Transformational Leaders





empower and nurture followers
stimulate change by becoming strong role
models for followers
create a vision
act as change agents
are social architects
Summary

Two types of leadership




Transactional
Transformational
Treats followers as complete human
beings
Moves followers to accomplish beyond
expectations

often incorporates charismatic and visionary
leadership
Summary

Motivates followers beyond the
expected by:



raising consciousness
transcending self-interest
addressing higher-level needs
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