Cont.. - ahmadrofie

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Strategic Planning for Information

Systems

Third Edition

John Ward and Joe Peppard

CHAPTER 8

Strategic Management of IS/IT: Organizing and Resourcing

1

Outlines

• Organizing strategies for IS/IT management

• Models and framework for guiding management action

2

Objectives of the IS/IT

Management Strategy

• To ensure IS/IT strategies, policies and plans reflect business objectives and strategies.

• To ensure potential business advantages from IS/IT are identified and exploited.

• To ensure strategies, etc. are viable in terms of business risks.

• To establish appropriate resource levels and reconcile contention/set priorities.

• To create a ‘culture’ for the management of IS/IT that reflects the corporate culture.

• To monitor the progress of business-critical IS/IT activities.

• To achieve the best balance b/w centralization and development of IS/IT decision making.

3

Traditional IT Organization

IT

Executive

Consulting

Plans and control

Development

Systems development

Finance and admin.

Service

Operational services

Plan Implement Deliver

Source: Luftman

4

Centralization

CIO

Administration

Planning

Research

HR

...

...

Source: Luftman

Systems

Development

Design

Programming

Maintenance

Data

Management

...

Operations

Data Centers

Telecomm.

Help Desk

...

...

5

Decentralization

CEO

CIO

VP Finanace

Function 1

VP Marketing

Function 1

VP Product ABC

VP Product XYZ

Function 1 Function 1

Finance IT

Source: Luftman

Marketing IT ABC IT XYZ IT

6

Federal or Hybrid

CEO

VP

Finance

VP PLA

VP PLB

CIO

Systems development for finance

Systems development for product line A

Systems development for product line B

Administration Operations

7

Benefits of Federal Model

Unresponsive

No BU ownership

No BU control of central

overhead $

Does NOT meet every

BU need

IT vision and leadership

Scale

economics

Users control

IT priorities

Leverage

standards

and tools

BU ownership

Control

architecture

Responsive to

BU’s needs

Excessive $ to group

Variable standards of IT

competence

Reinvention of wheels

No synergy and

integration

Critical mass of skills

Centralized IT

-

+

Strategic control synergy

+

Decentralized IT

-

8

Factors for Selecting

Organizational Structure

• The organization’s depend on IT

• Its stage of maturity in terms of its application portfolio

• The geography of the enterprise, especially for organizations with a global presence

• Its business diversity and rate of change of the types of business and competitive pressures in each business

• The potential benefits of synergy b/w business in both trading goods and services and information exchange

• The economics of resourcing, obtaining and deploying skills

9

La Belle and Nyce

• While the business units should be responsible for applications- architecture, development and operation- certain areas should be centralized

• These included: telecommunications, hardware, software architecture, information architecture, risk management and security, shared services and utilities, and human resources.

• The activities of the units had to be coordinated with the central architecture development via

‘steering group or committee’

10

Division of Responsibility:

IT Architecture Management

• Function: Develop and maintain information architecture

• Central IT group:

– Monitor process; provide assistance if requested

• Business unit operations

– Complete business architectures defining business by location

– Complete translation of strategy into technology requirements

– Define information architecture

11

Cont..

• Function: Develop and maintain application architecture

• Central IT group

– Set standards, monitor process

– Review architectures and report on adequacy to

Technology Committee

– Ensure appropriate commonality

• Business unit operations

– Define requirements and develop architecture

– Coordinate b/w units for common business

12

Cont..

• Function: Develop and maintain data architectures

• Central IT group

– Coordinate development/establishment of common database management process

– Create/maintain corporate databases

• Business unit operations

– Define requirements

– Develop in accordance with standards

13

Cont…

• Function: develop and maintain hardware/operating system architecture

• Central IT group

– Monitor development/implementation within sectors

– Develop and maintain architecture for corporate users-support operations

• Business unit operations

– Develop in accordance with corporate standards and business requirements

– Request variances as appropriate; make change recommendations

14

Cont…

• Function: Develop and maintain telecommunications architectures

• Central IT group

– Develop in accordance with standards and business requirements

• Business unit operations

– Define requirements

– Report performance/responsiveness problems

15

Balancing IS Demand and IT

Supply

• Business units receive a responsive service from decentralized IS functions

• While at the same time a corporate IS function provides group wide IT services and exerts some degree of central leadership and control of IT activities

16

Summary of Structural Arrangements for IS Function in Multiple BUs

Structural arrangements for the IS Function

Strategies for managing

IS/IT activities

Independent IS/IT activities in business units

·

BUs pursue independent system initiatives

·

·

·

Advantages

BUs have ownership

Users control IS/IT priorities

Responsive to BU’s needs

·

·

·

·

Centrally-driven IS/

IT activities

·

Corporate wide

IS/IT solutions imposed on BUs

·

·

·

Scale economics

Control of standards

Critical mass of skill

·

·

·

·

·

·

Critical management issues

Integration

Lack of quality control of data

Variable standards of

IS/IT competency

‘Reinvention of wheels’ and duplication of effort

Little synergy across

Bus

Managing cost

Politics

Unresponsive

Does not meet every

Bus’ needs

Cont..

Structural arrangements for the IS Function

Informal cooperation in IS/

IT activities across

BUs

‘Federalism’

(integrated IS/IT)

Strategies for managing

IS/IT activities

Advantages

Critical management issues

·

·

·

Informal social networking b/w the centre & Bus

Usually brought about by movement of key

IS/IT personnel across BUs

·

Balancing central control & BU autonomy

· without losing the advantage of global coordination & integration

Awareness of IS/

IT issues across the enterprise

·

·

Group-wide IS/IT strategy & architecture with devolution where appropriate

·

·

·

·

Coordination & direction setting

Leaving too much to chance

Complexity

Execution

Timing

Defining ‘where appropriate’

18

Imperative for the Management of IS/IT: Rockart et al.

• Achieve two-way alignment b/w the business and IS/IT strategy

• Develop effective relationships with line management

• Deliver and implement new systems

• Build and manage IT infrastructure

• Reskill the IS function with new competencies and knowledge

• Manage vendor partnerships

• Redesign and manage the federal IS organization

19

Imperative for the Management of IS/IT: Venkatraman

• He argued the need for a different approach to managing IT resources that consider the sources of value to be derived from IT resources.

• He proposed that resources should be managed as a

value centre

.

• The value centre is an organizing concept that recognizes four interdependent sources of value from IT resources:

cost centre, service centre, investment and profit centre

.

20

Cont…

• The

cost centre

has an operational focus that minimizes risks with an emphasis on operational efficiency. Cost-centre activities are good candidates for outsourcing.

• The

service centre

, although still minimizing risk, aims to create an ITenabled business capability to support current strategies.

21

Cont…

• The

investment centre

has a long-term focus and aims to create new IT-based business capabilities. It seeks to maximize business opportunity from IT resources.

• The

profit centre

is designed to deliver IT services to the external marketplace for incremental revenue and for gaining valuable experience in becoming a worldclass IS function.

22

Imperative for the Management of IS/IT: Gartner Group

1

2

3

4

5

IT Leadership

Architecture

Development

Business

Enhancement

Technology

Advancement

Vendor

Management

Supply side

1

Demand side

4

2

3

Embedded in the business

5

Outsourced to external service providers

23

Cont…

• IT leadership, which includes IT envisioning, fusing IT strategy with business strategy, and managing IS resources.

• Architecture development, which is concerned with developing a blue-print for the overall IT technical design.

• Business enhancement, which includes business process analysis and design, project management and managing relationships with users.

• Technology advancement, which is application design and development.

• Vendor management, which includes managing and developing relationships with vendor and suppliers, negotiating and monitoring contracts and purchasing.

24

A Framework Guiding Action

• What needs to be managed?

• Where IS/IT resources should be outsourced?

• Who should manage IS/IT?

• Coordinating mechanisms for the strategic management of IS/IT

• Define IS competency

• Managing relationships

25

What Needs to be Managed?

• The activities that are traditionally seen as necessary for ‘IT’, and consequently considered as taking place within the IS function, can be portrayed as delivering a range of services to the business.

– Strategy and planning services

– Application development services

– Application and technical services

– Technology delivery and maintenance services

26

Deciding on the organization of

IS/IT Resources

• 2 key issues must be considered

– Location of IS/IT decision rights

• What decisions should be centralized and what aspects of IS/IT management should be devolved into the business and out of the IS function?

• The organization needs to define authority, responsibilities, policies, coordinating mechanism and control procedures.

– Sourcing of IS/IT resources

• Internal or interorganizational resources

• The interorganizational arrangement places new stresses, demanding additional coordination and vendor relationship management.

27

Trading-offs in the Organization and Resourcing of IS/IT

Distributed

Location of decision rights

Traditional

IS function

Centralized

Internal Interorganizational

Provisioning of

IS resources

28

Cont…

• Organizations engaging in outsourcing at some stage identify the need to realign, change and/or develop different parts of their IS/IT structures, competencies and skills to enable them to maintain the link b/w IS/IT and business prerequisites.

• Increase the complexity in managing IS/IT

29

Aspects Required for Distributing

IS/IT Decision Making

Content

– the decision areas that are being managed (Table 8.4)

• Authority – the individuals or groups that have the power actually to make decisions in the various areas

Responsibilities

– the individuals or bodies responsible for day-to-day execution in decision areas. The definition of responsibility needs to be integral to each person’s job role and function

Coordination

– the mechanism and processes for ensuring coherence across all decision areas

(eg. Steering committees, management groups)

30

Cont…

Policies

– statements of principles or actions defining acceptable behaviour.

They provide a basis for consistent decision making and resource allocation.

Control

– outlining the approached to policing decisions, ensuring conformance across the organization

31

IS/IT Policies

Restraining policies

are seen as describing the rules of federation. They define the parameters within which decisions are made.

Enabling policies

relate to the dissemination of best practice.

32

Enabling and Restraining Policies

• Restraining Policies

– Technical compatibility standards

– Standards for buying equipment & services

– Common systems mandate

– Disaster recovery, security & quality policies

– Group systems standards

– Group job specifications

– Any conformance to industry standards

.

.

.

• Enabling Policies

– Making group-resourced services available to division

– Negotiating volume discounts

– Managing supplier relationships

– Influencing behaviour through charge-out rules

– Setting criteria for selecting common systems

– Funding share assets

.

.

.

33

Provisioning of IS/IT Resources

• Insourcing – IS/IT resources are provided by a central IS function

• Outsourcing – delegation, through a contractual arrangement, of all or part of the technical resources, the human resources and the management responsibilities associated with providing

IT services, to an external vendor.

34

Outsourcing Rationales

• Financial and economic reasons

• Technical reasons

• Business reasons

35

Classifying Sourcing Options

• Purchasing style

– Transaction style refers to one-time or short-term contracts with enough detail to be the original reference document

– Relationship style refers to less detailed, often incentive-based contracts, centred around the expectation that the customer and vendor will do business for many years.

• Purchasing focus

– Resource option

, organizations buy vendor resources such as HW, SW or expertise, but manage the use of the resources in-house.

– Result option

, vendors manage the delivery of the IT activities, using whatever resources are necessary, to provide the customer with specified results.

36

Classifying Sourcing Options

Resource

BUY IN

PREFERRED

SUPPLIER

Purchasing focus

Result

CONTRACT

OUT

PREFERRED

CONTRACTOR

Transaction

Purchasing

Relationship style

37

4 Outsource Strategies

• Contract out strategy

- the vendor is responsible for delivering the results of IT activity.

• Buy-in strategy – the organization buy in resources from the external market, often to meet a temporary requirement. Contracts often specify the skills required and cost, with the resources then managed in-house.

• Preferred contract strategy – organizations contract long term with a vendor to reduce risk, with the vendor responsible for the management and delivery of an IT activity or service.

• Preferred supplier strategy – this strategy takes buy-in approach further, with an organization seeking to develop a long-term close relationship with a vendor in order to access its resources for ongoing IT activities.

The organization takes responsibility for managing these resources.

38

Vital Competencies for

Maintaining In-House

• The ability to track, assess and interpret changing IS/IT capability and relate them to organization need.

• The ability to work with business management to define the IT requirements over time.

• The ability to identify appropriate ways to use the market, specify and manage IS/IT sourcing.

• The ability to monitor and manage contractual relations.

39

When to Outsource

• Position on the strategic grid

• Development portfolio

• Organizational learning

• A firm’s position in the market

• Current IT organiztion

40

Position on the Strategic Grid

High

Factory- uninterrupted service-oriented information resource management

Outsourcing presumption

: Yes, unless company is huge and well managed

·

·

·

Reasons to consider outsourcing:

·

Possibilities of economies of scale for small and midsize firms

Higher-quality service and backup

Management focus facilitated

Fiber-optic and extended channel technologies facilitate international IT solutions

Support-oriented information resource management

Outsourcing presumption

: Yes

·

·

Reasons to consider outsourcing:

·

·

Access to higher IT professionalism

Possibility of laying off is of low priority and problematic

Access to current IT technologies

Risk of inappropriate IT architecture reduced

Low

Strategic information resource management

Outsourcing presumption

: Mixed

Reasons to consider outsourcing:

·

·

·

·

·

Rescue an out-of-control internal IT unit

Tap source of cash

Facilitate cost flexibility

Facilitate management of divestiture

Provide access to technology applications and staffing skills otherwise not available

Turnaround information resource management

Outsourcing presumption

: Mixed

Reasons to consider outsourcing:

·

Internal IT unit not capable in required technologies

·

Internal IT unit not capable in required project management skills

·

Access to technology applications and staffing otherwise not available

IT Impact on Core Strategy

Development Portfolio

• Maintenance or high-structured projects=> candidate for outsourcing

• High-technology, highly structured work => strong candidate for outsourcing

• Large, low-structured projects => difficult coordination problems for outsourcing

42

Organizational Learning

• A firm’s organizational learning ability influences whether it can manage an outsourcing arrangement effectively.

• Many firms’ development portfolios include a large number of projects aimed at process reengineering and organizational transformation.

• The success of both types of projects depends on having the internal staff radically change the way it works.

43

A Firm’s Position in the Market

• Firms that are far behind their peers often do not have the IT leadership, staff skills, or architecture to upgrade quickly to state-of-the-art technology.

• Must go forward with contemporary practice and technology.

• A firm whose IT capabilities have become obsolete, it is not worth dwelling on how the firm got where it is but vital to determine how it can extricate itself

44

Current IT Organization

• The more IT activities are already segregated in organizational and accounting terms, the easier it is to negotiate an enduring outsourcing contract.

• A stand-alone IT unit has already developed the fundamental integrating and control mechanisms necessary for an outsourcing contract

45

Who should Manage IS/IT and

Where should IT Report

IT directors

Finance directors

Pluses

• Technical expertise

• Accurate Systems

• Sound technology

• Systems integration

• Tight cost control

• Department coordination

• Training costs integrated

• Strict authorization

Minuses

• IT not aligned

• Education omitted

• Information overload

• Technical solutions

• Not always best value for money

• Insufficient time to devote to IT

• Opportunities missed

• Short-term approach

46

Cont…

Business

-unit head

Board of directors

Pluses

• IT investments linked to the business direction

• Locally-focused systems

• Continuous development

• Shorter reporting structure

• Strategic direction

• Appreciation of broader impact of decisions

• Major problems tackled

• Funding allocated

Minuses

• Systems not coordinated

• Incompatibility across

BUs

• Duplication of data

• Unnecessary costs incurred

• Logistical details omitted

• IS/IT underexploited

• Infrastructure weak

• Slow to exploit technology

47

Changing Role of the CIO

Aplikasi portofolio

• Mainframe era

– Pemrosesan transaksi-otomatisasi untuk efisiensi terdistribusi era

• Distributed era

– Knowledge-worker support,interorganizational systems, ERP systems

• Web-based and Internet era

– Electroniccommerce, Knowle \ DGE manajem en, organisasi virtual,rantaipasokan rekayasa ulang

48

Cont…

Senior eksekutif sikap bisnis untuk IS / IT

• Mainframe era

– TI untuk perpindahan biaya dan otomatisasi

• Distributed era

– Peningkatan keterlibatan dalam masalah IT dan pemerintahan

– Polarisasi sikap: TI sebagai aset strategis atau biaya yang harus diminimalkan

• Web-based and Internet era

– TI, terutama internet, dipandang sebagai transformasional

– Investasi TI sekarang lebih menarik dalam hal biaya dan rentang waktu

– IS / IT sekarang bagian dari percakapan bisnis yang sedang berlangsung

49

Cont…

Masukan untuk bisnis

• Mainframe Era

– Penasehat 'Bagaimana melakukan', 'Apa yang harus dilakukan'

• Distributed era

– Akses ke eksekutif senior

– Diundang 'kursi di meja'

• Web-based and Internet era

– Anggota tim eksekutif memiliki 'kursi di meja‘

– Membantu mendefinisikan 'apa yang harus dilakukan'

50

Cont…

Tugas utama

• Mainframe era

– Pada waktu pengiriman

– Handal operasi TI

• Distributed era

– Mengelola IS fungsi

– Menyediakan infrastruktur

– Mengelola vendor

• Web-based and Internet era

– Bersama-sama mengembangkan bisnis / TI model

– Perkenalkan proses manajemen yang memanfaatkan teknologi, terutama internet

51

Cont…

Peran

• Mainframe era

– Fungsional kepala

– Manajer operasional

– Menepati janji

• Distributed era

– Mitra strategis

– Hubungan pembangun

– Teknologi penasihat

– Luruskan IS / IT dengan bisnis

• Web-based and Internet era

– Visioner

– Hubungan pembangun

– Teknologi oportunis

– Drive dan bentuk strategi

52

5 Peran untuk agar

CIO Sukses

• Kepemimpinan

• visioner

• hubungan pembangun

• politikus

• pembebas

53

Karakteristik Kepemimpinan

• Luas bisnis dan pengetahuan organisasi

• Luas seperangkat hubungan dalam perusahaan& industri

• Sangat baik reputasi dan track record yang kuat dalam satu set luas kegiatan

• Tajam pikiran dan keterampilan interpersonal yang kuat

• Tinggi integritas dan nilai-nilai pribadi

• Tingkat tinggi motivasi

54

Leaders VS Managers

A sensible and appealing picture or the future

Vision

A logic for how the vision can be achieved

Leaders define

WHAT

Strategies

Managers define HOW

Plans

Budgets

Specific steps and timetables to implement the strategies

Plans converted into financial projections and goals

55

Profile dari CIO

• Behavior

– Apakah setia kepada organisasi

– Terbuka dalam gaya manajemen

– Dianggap memiliki integritas

• Motivation

– Apakah berorientasi tujuan

– Nyaman sebagai agen perubahan

– Kreatif dan mendorong ide-ide

• Competencies

– Adalah seorang konsultan / fasilitator baik komunikator

– Memiliki pengetahuan

IT

– Mampu mencapai hasil melalui orang lain

• Experienace

– Pengalaman dalam pengembangan

IS peran (terutama dalam analisis sistem)

56

Mekanisme Koordinasi Pengelolaan

Strategis IS / IT

• Pengarah kelompok atau komite

• Alasan

– Memastikan keterlibatan manajemen puncak dalam perencanaan IS

– Memastikan b cocok / w IS dan strategi bisnis

– Meningkatkan komunikasi dengan manajemen puncak dan menengah

– Mengubah sikap pengguna untuk TI

57

Mekanisme Koordinasi

Pengelolaan Strategis SI / TI

• Salah orang yang terlibat

• Kegiatan komite pengarah dan keputusan yang diambil harus terintegrasi dengan strategi keseluruhan diproses dalam bisnis.

• Panitia tidak memiliki infrastruktur untuk mendukung dan melaksanakan tindakan-tindakan yang menjadi strategi.

58

Pengarah Organisasi untuk

IS / IT Manajemen Strategis

BUSINESS-LED

EXECUTIVE

STEERING

GROUP

IT-LED

BUSINESS

(or functional)

IS STRATEGY

GROUPS

APPLICATION

MANAGEMENT

GROUPS

DEMAND

MANAGEMENT

IT STRATEGY

GROUP

SERVICE

MANAGEMENT

GROUPS

TECHNICAL

MANAGEMENT

GROUPS

SUPPLY

MANAGEMENT

59

Tanggung Jawab: Kelompok

Pengendali Eksekutif

• Menafsirkan strategi bisnis dan menyetujui

• keseluruhan IS / IT kebijakan

• Menetapkan prioritas, menyetujui tingkat sumber daya dan biaya, otorisasiinvestasi besar

• Memastikan bahwa aplikasi strategis mencapai tujuan mereka

• Menetapkan tanggung jawab organisasi yang tepat dan hubungan

60

Tanggung Jawab: Bisnis

ADALAH Grup Strategi

• Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan bisnis, menafsirkanCSF, menilai peluang dan ancaman dan IS implikasi di bidang bisnis

• Memprioritaskan, perencanaan dan koordinasi kegiatan dan pengeluaran IS di daerah tersebut dan manfaat yang direncanakan memastikan disampaikan

• Memastikan sumber daya pengguna yang tepat dialokasikan untuk proyek dan menunjuk manajer aplikasi

61

Tanggung Jawab: IT Strategy

Group

• Menafsirkan TI tren dan perkembangan dalam konteks organizationbisnis

• Memastikan sumber daya dikerahkan untuk memenuhi prioritas bisnis

• Mengembangkan sumber daya TI dan jasa sesuai dengan bisnis IS rencana dan pemantauan kinerja sumber daya

• Mengelola pasokan teknologi dan spesialis membeli-in layanan Risiko teknisMemastikan diminimalkan

62

Tanggung Jawab:

Kelompok Manajemen Aplikasi

• Mengidentifikasi dan menentukan kebutuhan, manfaat, sumber daya bisnis dan biaya aplikasi untuk memungkinkan manajemen untuk mengevaluasi investasi dan prioritas

• Mengelola perkembangan dan penggunaan berkelanjutan dari sistem untukmemastikan manfaat yang maksimal

• Memastikan perubahan bisnis yang diperlukan untuk mendapatkan manfaat dilakukan

• Memastikan bahwa sumber daya pengguna yang tersedia sesuai kebutuhan dan digunakan secara efektif pada proyek-proyek

63

Tanggung

Jawab: Kelompok Layanan

Manajemen

• Menerjemahkan kebutuhan bisnis ke dalam persyaratan teknis dan implikasi sumber daya

• Memilih cara optimal pertemuan bisnis kebutuhan

• Pemantauan kinerja terhadap anggaran / tingkat layanan disepakati dengan bisnis

• Solusi teknis Memastikan diuji dan kualitas terjamin untuk menghindari kegagalan aplikasi

• Perencanaan pengembangan layanan dan sumber daya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan yang berkembang

64

Tanggung Jawab: Kelompok

Teknologi Manajemen

• Memahami perkembangan teknologi, merumuskan dan mengkomunikasikan pilihan implikasi

• Menilai kemampuan teknologi terhadap kebutuhan dikenal dan potensi

• Perencanaan dan pengelolaan pengembangan infrastruktur dan migrasi untuk meminimalkan risiko untuk aplikasi bisnis

• Kelompok layanan Menyelesaikan masalah teknis / masalah dengan pemasokdan memastikan secara efektif didukung

65

Mengelola IS Fungsi

3 bertahan dalam tantangan eksploitasi TI

• Tantangan bisnis dan IS / IT visi adalah untuk mengatasi kebutuhan untuk dua arah b / w keselarasan bisnis dan teknologi

• Tantangan pengiriman IS layanan dengan biaya rendah dan kualitas tinggisedang berubah oleh pasar, layanan yang berkembang dinamis

• Tantangan TI desain arsitektur - pilihan platform teknis di mana untuk me-mount ISlayanan

66

Kompetensi inti IS

IS/IT leadership

Business system thinking

Relationship building

Architecture planning

Integrating IS/IT effort with business purpose and activity

Envisioning the business process that technology makes possible

Getting the business constructively engaged in IS/IT issues

Creating a coherent blueprint for a technical platform that responds to current and future business

Making technology work

Rapidly achieving technical progress by one means or another

67

Cont..

Informed buying Managing the IS/IT sourcing strategy that meets the interests of the business

Contract facilitation

Ensuring the success of existing contracts for IS/IT services

Contract monitoring

Protecting the business’s contractual position, current and future

Vendor development

Identifying the potential added value of

IS/IT service suppliers

68

Other Framework for IS

Competencies

Strateg8i

Define the IS

Capability

Define the IT

Capability

Pemasok

Exploitation

Deliver solution

69

Cont…

• Strategi: kemampuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi implikasi TI berbasis peluang sebagai bagian integral dari formulasi strategi bisnis dan mendefinisikan peran IS / IT dalam organisasi.

• Tentukan IS kontribusi: kemampuan untuk menerjemahkan strategi bisnis ke dalam proses, informasi dan investasi sistem dan rencana perubahan yangsesuai dengan prioritas-bisnis strategi IS

• Tentukan kemampuan TI: kemampuan untuk menerjemahkan strategi bisnis ke dalam jangka panjang arsitektur informasi, infrastruktur teknologi dan rencanasumber daya yang memungkinkan pelaksanaan strategi-strategi TI

70

Cont…

Exploitasi

: the ability to maximize the benefits realized from the implementation of IS/IT investments through effective use of information, applications and IT services.

Memberikan Solusi

: the ability to deploy resources to develop, implement and operate

IS/IT business solutions that exploit the capabilities of the technology.

Pasokan

: the ability to create and maintain an appropriate and adaptable information, technology and application supply chain and resource capacity.

71

Define the IS contribution

• Prioritas

• IS keselarasan strategi

• Bisnis proses desain

• Peningkatan kinerja bisnis

• Sistem dan inovasi proses

• Tentukan kemampuan TI

Define the IT capability

• Pembangunan infrastruktur

• Teknologi analisis

• Sourcing strategi

Cont…

Strategy

• strategi bisnis

• inovasi teknologi

• investasi kriteria

• informasi pemerintahan strategi

Exploitation

• Manfaat perencanaan

• Manfaat pengiriman

• Mengelola perubahan

Deliver solutions

• pengembangan aplikasi layanan manajemen

• Informasi manajemen aset pelaksanaan manajemen menerapkan teknologi

• Kelangsungan bisnis dan keamanan

Supply

• Hubungan pemasok

• Teknologi standar

• Teknologi akuisisi

• Aset dan manajemen biaya

IS / IT pengembangan staf

72

Pemetaan Lokasi Sumber

Daya melawan ISKomponen

Sumber dari IS fungsi

Fokus

Teknologi

Pasokan

Tentukan kemampuan

TI

Pengiriman Solusi

Exploitasi

Tentukan contribusi IT

Strategi

Sumber dari 'bisnis'

Fokus

Bisnis

73

Kompetensi IS

74

Menjaga Kebersihan

Faktor Staf Kunci

• Pelatihan baru direkrut dari sekolah atau universitas, yang mahal

• Merekrut staf yang berpengalaman dari organisasi lain, yang dapat berisiko

• Pelatihan yang ada non-IS orang, terutama dalam keterampilan aplikasi di daerahpengguna, yang mungkin memerlukan pengembangan peran pekerjaan baru

• Menggunakan sumber daya eksternal, baik pada jangka pendek untuk mengatasibeban puncak, atau jangka panjang untuk memberikan organisasi denganketerampilan tertentu

75

Penggunaan Sumber Daya

Potensi tinggi

Pengguna

STRATEGIC

Melatih pengguna dalam aplikasi berbasis keterampilan

(menggunakan sumber daya sendiri)

Beli dalam membantu ahli dan transfer pengetahuan

Spesialis

Teknologi

Merekrut dan / atau kereta spesialis

IS / IT profesional

Melatih pengguna dalam eksploitasi paket perangkat lunak untuk menggantikan profesional TI

Pengguna

Outsource to release resources

KUNCI

OPERASIONAL

DUKUNGAN

Penyedia layanan aplikasi fasilitas manajemen kontraktor pengembangan perangkat lunak

76

Keen Kategori 4 Peran Utama

• Layanan Bisnis - membutuhkan bisnis yang kuat, keterampilan organisasi dan perencanaan

• Bisnis dukungan - bisnis dan organisasi serta beberapa keterampilan teknis

• Pengembangan dukungan - yang kuat teknis dan keterampilan bisnis yang baik

• Layanan Teknis - keterampilan teknis yang kuat

77

Mengelola Hubungan: 3 Hubungan

Kunci (Venkatraman & Loh)

• Dengan TI pemasok luar, yang pasti akan melakukan pekerjaan semakin lebih melalui pengaturan outsourcing.

• Dengan manajer bisnis dan pengguna sistem, untuk memungkinkan bisnis untuk mengidentifikasi dan menyadari manfaat dari investasi aplikasi dan untuk mendapatkan nilai maksimum dari layanan yang disediakan.

• Dengan spesialis IT di perusahaan lain, mitra terutama perdagangan

78

Hubungan internal Organisasi

• Organisasi mengandung subkultur sering dikaitkan dengan spesialisasi fungsional atau lokasi geografis.

• Subkultur ini dapat dyfunctional.

• TI sebagai spesialisasi fungsional telah memperkenalkan subkultur baru dansalah satu yang sering sulit untuk berdamai dengan budaya yang dominan dalam organisasi .=> kesenjangan budaya

• Ini berarti bahwa kelangsungan hidup strategi IS akan tergantung pada sejauh mana itu berasal dari 'nilainilai bersama' dari mereka yang harus menerapkan strategi.

79

Tahap 4

'Demokrat dialektika dan kerjasama'

Cont…

Spesialis TI menyadari kebutuhan untuk bekerja sama dengan manajer bisnis untuk mencapai tujuan bisnis, tapi masih berharap bisnis untuk bekerja sama dengan TI set nilai

Tahap 5

'Wirausaha kesempatan'

Tahap 6

'hubungan yang harmonis

Terpadu'

Pengakuan dalam bisnis yang dapat memberikan TI baru, yang berpotensi strategis, manfaat melalui penggunaan inovatif sering membuat departemen

TI menjaga warisan dan berjuang untuk memberikan nilai apapun untuk yang baru

'dibebaskan' pengguna

Jarang dicapai, karena kesulitan dalam merekonsiliasi nilai-nilai yang berbeda, mengatasi preseden sejarah dan prasangka, dan membutuhkan keterbukaan baru dalam semua aspek aktivitas TI

80

Bridging the Gap

The business

CEO

Leadership

Structure and

Processes

Roles

CIO

Relationships

IS

Function

Behaviours

81

Tahap 1

Adhocracy

6 Bertahap Mengenai

Model Nilai Bersama

Sangat sedikit nilai-nilai bersama sejak fokus TI internal dan mereka tidak mampu atau tidak mau untuk mencari hubungan koheren dengan bisnis. Mereka berhubungan lebih erat dengan pemasok TI

Tahap 2

'Mulai yayasan

The 'imamat "TI mulai berkembang dan staf TI mungkin menumbuhkan budaya yang unik didasarkan pada ibadah teknologi - sering bertentangan dengan serius bisnis

Tahap 3

'Sentralisasi kediktatoran'

Ketika manajemen TI sering bereaksi untuk bisnis manajer 'keprihatinan atas' belanja berlebihan 'pada IT dan pandangan kinerja pengiriman yang buruk dengan menjadi defensif dan mengerahkan kontrol atas apa yang dilakukannya untuk memperbaiki keseimbangan

82

Model untuk Meningkatkan Hubungan b / w IS Fungsi & Bisnis

• Earl dan Sampler

-Kenali disekuilibrium

-Menekankan manajemen pasokan

-Menekankan manajemen permintaan

-menjaga keseimbangan

• Peppard

-Mendapatkan dasar-dasar yang tepat

-Mintalah pengaruh utama

-membangun kredibilitas

-Carilah keterlibatan awal dalam proyek

-Tempat tanggung jawab untuk IS dengan bisnis

-Memupuk dan memelihara kemitraan

83

Earl dana Sampler: Mengenali

Disequilibrium

• Organisasi mengartikulasikan, mengekspl orasi dan menganalisa krisis atau kehilangan kepercayaan di IT pada umumnya dan IS fungsi pada khususnya.

• Gejala dan resep

-Bisnis kebutuhan tidak puas

-Teknologi masalah

-Manajemen penilaian

-Mulai dari rezim baru

84

Earl dan Sampler:Tekankan Supply

Management

• Organisasi ini bertujuan peningkatan kinerja radikal dari sisi penawaran dengan menetapkan tujuan pengiriman dan mulai membangun kembali platform teknologi.

• Resep

-Menetapkan target kinerja yang ambisius

-Mulai membangun platform teknis

-Mencari awal, hasil nyata

-Mengatur aplikasi prioritas

85

Earl dan Sampler: Tekankan Supply

Management

• Organisasi ini bertujuan peningkatan kinerja radikal dari sisi penawaran dengan menetapkan tujuan pengiriman dan mulai membangun kembali platform teknologi.

• Resep

-Menetapkan target kinerja yang ambisius

-Mulai membangun platform teknis

-Mencari awal, hasil nyata

-Mengatur aplikasi prioritas

86

Earl dan Sampler:

Menjaga Keseimbangan

• Organisasi melengkapi proses transformasi dengan menerapkan perubahan radikal akhir di kedua sisi permintaan dan penawaran.

• Jika bisnis atau teknologi diskontinuitas terjadi dan perusahaan tidak berurusan dengan mereka, dapat memulai proses transformasi baru dengan kembali keTahap 1.

resep

• Menyadari bahwa itu merupakan perjalanan yang berkesinambungan

Rethinking pemerintahan

Pelatihan ulang personil TI

Menciptakan kemitraan dengan bisnis dan vendor

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Peppard Model

• Mendapatkan dasardasar yang tepat

Kepemimpinan TI

Dapatkan bisnis yang terfokus

Fokus pada kualitas

 internal organisasi TI

Memeriksa struktur internal dan proses

Tentukan nilai tambah

 aspek IS / IT

Dapatkan dukungan dan komitmen dari semua IS staf

• Mintalah pengaruh utama

Dapatkan pengaruh utama pada papan

Setuju peran organisasi TI

Dengarkan bisnis

Menentukan area prioritas utama

Menetapkan peran hubungan dalam organisasi

TI

Membangun kesepakatan tingkat layanan

Membuka saluran komunikasi

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Cont…

• Membangun kredibilitas

-Membangun dialog dengan bisnis

-Alamat nilai-nilai dan kepercayaan dari manajemen bisnis

-Menunjukkan nilai bisnis

-Memprakarsai program pendidikan untuk penyumbatan 'mindset' alamat

-Memulai program pemasaran internal

• Carilah keterlibatan awal dalam proyek

-Fokus pada manfaat pengiriman

-Pastikan TI keterlibatan awal dalam proyek bisnis dan visa-versa

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Mengelola Hubungan dengan

Vendor

• 4 daerah kritis yang memerlukan perhatian

-Fungsi CIO

-Pengukuran kinerja

-Campur dan koordinasi tugas

-Pelanggan-vendor antarmuka

90

Cont…

• Tempat tanggung jawab untuk IS dengan bisnis

-Memindahkan tanggung jawab IS permintaan ke bisnis

-Membingkai ulang IS / IT struktur tata kelola

-Buat IT / proses bisnis

-Mendefinisikan peran informasi

• Memupuk dan memelihara kemitraan

-Penekanan terusmenerus komunikasi

-Kembali tahap sebelumnya

91

• Kemitraan / kontrak manajemen

– Sebuah informasi CIO yang memonitor kinerja terhadap kontrak dan rencana untuk dan berurusan dengan isuisu yang muncul aliansi outsourcing membantu beradaptasi dengan perubahan.

• Perencanaan arsitektur.

– Staf Seorang CIO harus memvisualisasikan dan mengkoordinasikan pendekatan jangka panjang untuk standar jaringan, HW dan SW dan arsitektur basis data

-

Fungsi CIO

• Emerging technologies

– Perusahaan harus mengembangkan suatu pemahaman yang jelas teknologi muncul dan aplikasi potensi mereka

– Menilai alternatif teknologi tidak dapat didelegasikan kepada pihak ketiga terus menerus belajarContinuous learn

– Sebuah perusahaan harus menciptakan lingkungan TI internal belajar untuk membawa pengguna ke kecepatan sehingga mereka merasa nyaman dalam iklim

92 perubahan terus-menerus

Pengukuran Kinerja

• Perusahaan harus mengembangkan standar kinerja, mengukur hasil.

• Langkah paling penting dari keberhasilan yang tidak berwujud dan memainkan jangka waktu yang panjang

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Campur dan Koordinasi Tugas

• Jika tidak hati-hati dikelola, baik kontrak dan lokasi geografis yang berbeda dari staf pengembangan outsourcing vendor mungkin menghambat diskusi dan mengakibatkan biaya tambahan

94

Pelanggan-Vendor Antarmuka

• Interface b / w pelanggan dan vendor sangat kompleks dan biasanya harus terjadi pada berbagai tingkat.

• Tingkat senior, harus ada link untuk menangani isu-isu utama dari kebijakan restrukturisasi dan hubungan

• Tingkat yang lebih rendah, harus ada mekanisme untuk mengidentifikasi dan menangani isu yang lebih operasional dan taktis.

• CEO kebijakan tingkat-diskusi

• Kedua sisi membutuhkan manajer hubungan reguler penuh waktu dan kelompok koordinasi yang lebih rendah dalam organisasi untuk menangani isu-isu operasional dan potensi kesulitan

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