David Wodi Tukura PhD Detective Commander and Director, Planning, Policy & Statistics, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, Abuja, Nigeria “Of the foremost duties enjoined upon the State, the foremost duty is to maintain public law and order and preserve the rule of law. It is one of the most important pillars of good governance as the collapse of public order and the rule of law can erode the faith of the citizens in their government and erode its legitimacy. ICTs can play a pivotal role in transforming the police force from being an oppressive agency of the government to an agency which first and foremost exists to protect lives and the liberty of the common citizens” ICTD Project Newsletter, 2007 “Recently, rapid development in the field of ICT have had a major influence upon police work. ..For the police, ICT plays a twofold role: New technologies can support police work but also provide new opportunities for offenders to commit crimes” ICT Trends in European Policing 2011 Composite Project. Instrumentalities of The State to Maintain Public Order PREVENTION Good governance effective laws rigorous implementation of laws, socioeconomic development, equity GOOD GOVERNMENT Intelligence Gathering DETERRENCE Preventive Conflict Resolution Measures Investigation Prosecution Conviction Punishment CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM PRISONS POLICE INTELLIGENCE SOURCE:IICTD Project Newsletter: October; 2007: 37 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Professional Crime Prevention Crime Detection Law and Order Maintenance Crowd Management Riot Suppression Traffic Management Incident Response Investigation Crime/ Intelligence Analysis Counter-Insurgency 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Support Services to Law Enforcement Administration Finance Human Resources Management Technology Procurement Research Medical Services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lack of integrated information systems Poorly collected and imputed data Information Territoriality, i.e. lack of interagency information exchange regimes. Poor integration of voice, radio and data communications system. Lack of timeliness of captured data. Severe information security deficits and leakages. Poor in-house communication regimes 1. While law enforcement could be described as a generally conservative enterprise, technological adaptation is not new to the Police and Security Services. In fact, some of the devices in use today were used by the military decades before the public was even aware of they existed. 2. Below are some epoch making adaptations: 1850-1888 1. Samuel Colt invents the multi-shot pistol. The weapon was adopted by the Texas Rangers and police services worldwide. 2. 2. Sans Francisco adopts the use of photography for criminal identification 3. In Albany New York, the Police and Fire Departments adopt the use of the telegraph in 1877. 4. The Washington DC Precinct Police adopt the use of the telephone. 5. Chicago become the first US city adopt Alphonse Bertillon’s techniques for the measurement of the human body, first used in anthropology, for the identification of criminals. The Bertillon method was in use until the development of the finger print system. 1901-1932 1. Scotland Yard adopts fingerprint classification devised by Sir Richard Henry. 2. Edmund Locard setups the first police crime laboratory in Lyon, France. 3. The Pennsylvania State Police adopts the teletype. 4. The Detroit Police begin use of the one-way radio. 5. The Boston Police begin use of the two-way radio. 6. The American Police begin widespread use of the automobile. 7. The proto-type of the polygraph test is developed. 8. The FBI sets up its crime laboratory. 1948-1967 1. Radar is introduced into traffic law enforcement. 2. The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) is formed. 3. The New Orleans Police Department installs an electronic data processing machine- a vacuum tube operated calculator with a punch card sorter and collator to summarize arrests and warrants. 4. The first computer assisted dispatching system is installed in the St. Louise Police Department. 5. The National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System for message switching is established. 1967-1970s 1. The FBI establishes the National Crime Information Center (NCIC)-the first national law enforcement computing center. 2. AT&T creates 911 for emergency calls for Police, Fire and emergency services. 3. The 1960s witnesses the invention of riot and crowd management technologies-rubber & plastic bullets; dart guns with tranquillizers; batons with 6000 volt shocking power; strobe lights that confuses persons engaged in disorderly conduct; TASERS (uses electrical currents to disrupt voluntary control of muscles causing neuromuscular incapacitation). 1970s t0 Date 1. Large scale computerization of US Police departments begins. 2. Computer Assisted Dispatch (CAD); Management Information Systems; Centralized Call Collection; Centralized & Integrated Dispatching of Police; Fire and Medical Services. 3. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) adopts Kevlar based body armor. 4. NIJ funds the Newton, Massachusetts Police Department to assess the use of night vision equipment. 5. Rockwell International install fingerprint reader at the FBI in 1979. 6. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police implements first automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS). 7. Introduction of enhanced 911 which allows dispatchers to see on their computer screens the addresses and telephone numbers of callers. 8. Introduction of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) as a non-lethal instrument of riot control. 9. Police Departments in New York and Chicago start computer programs to map and analyze crime patterns. 10. DNA evidence established by the National Academy of Science (NAS) as reliable instrument for providing criminal evidence. 11. Improvements in crime scene investigation through the use of lights. 12. Use of in car cameras to record events from a patrol car. 13. Use of photo enforcement systems which automatically generate red light violations. 14. Graffiti cameras for taking photos of vandals. Talking cameras which warn intruders. 15. Thermal imaging for the location of suspects; missing persons. Locating disturbed surfaces; indoor marijuana growing operations; concealed bodies; objects and scanning imprints not available to the ordinary eye. 16. Criminal Investigation Records systems used in criminal investigations for making sense out of disparate data. 17. Lasers-laser spectroscopy devices can determine the chemical composition of a substance within seconds. 18. Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR)-this technology enables officers to check thousands of license plate numbers to determine if vehicles are stolen, registered or if the drivers are wanted. 19. Video sunglasses- these allow law enforcement officers video whatever is in view. Could have a memory of up to 32 gigabytes. 20. Wrist phones- allow the officer to transmit ongoing conversations via a GSM network without raising suspicion. Camera pens-allows the discrete generation of footage. 21. CCTV- electronic surveillance that allows the capturing of events in real time. Credits: I wish to acknowledge the paper “Use of ICT and Scientific Aids in Policing” by O.M. Oyeobu; First Point Consulting Limited for the information of Policing Technology; 20th October, 2010. Anti-Terrorism Technology 1. Magnetometers 2. 2. X-rays 3. Continuous Wave Devices. 4. Pulse Field Detectors 5. Chemiluminescence (generation of electromagnetic radiation as light by the release of energy from a chemical reaction)) 6. Backscattering Technology (the reflection of waves, particles and signals back to the direction from they came) 7. Computed Tomography( uses computed processed x-rays to produce tomographic images or slices of specific areas of the object of interest) The Situation 1. 2. 3. 4. Security issues rank among the most pressing need of Nigerians today. Terrorism; armed robbery; organized crime; trafficking in persons especially women and children; intercommunal and inter-ethnic violence impact negatively on the lives of many Nigerians. The proverbial “village” with its characteristic Acadian innocence and tranquility can now be found only in books, novels and Nollywood. The village is now the war-camp of ethnic militia and kidnappers. The families of Nigeria’s politicians and noveau rich are now huddled in Abuja in the hope that there is more security in the FCT than in their own ancestral homes. 6. Open borders, the free flow of people, goods, information and capital while being globalization forces also provides opportunities for criminals. 7. In Nigeria, through globalized terrorism, a rag tag movement of simple minded religious fanatics, within a space of ten years developed linkages that put to test the operational capacity of the best equipped military in the West African sub-region. 8. The area of economic and financial crimes which I am more familiar, over 50% of our work is connected with crimes using the internet of some form of ICT technology. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Policing and security are very complex activities requiring the integration of multiple data sources. The nature of law enforcement and security information is such that errors in storage and transmission could have devastating consequences. There is only one way out: The Law enforcement and security communities must START THINKING STRATEGICALLY! The era of the lone ranging police Department or clandestine 007 spy belongs only to the movies. Criminals have become strategic thinkers! The leadership of the law enforcement and security organs MUST adopt strategic thinking if they are succeed in the 21st Century “Today, Five years after 9/11, Law enforcement is no much further ahead in its ability to connect the dots than it was in the year 2000. Many efforts are underway to standardize law enforcement information, provide the infrastructure for wide spread sharing of information, enact legislation to permit information sharing and warehouse data and deploy technologies such as data mining, link analysis and other analytic techniques” Source: Charles Hill, Thomas Cowper and Andreas Olligshlaeger “Our criminals and terrorist adversaries are already beginning to understands the advantages of network centric models over traditional hierarchical “ Source: Charles Hill, Thomas Cowper and Andreas Olligshlaeger 1. There is the need to develop software that would promote INTERGRATED DATA BASES AND SYSTEMS across law enforcement agencies; security departments; the armed forces, regulatory bodies and the entire criminal justice system. 2. New interfaces between systems must be developed in such a way that previously unrelated information can be combined and used to support INTELLIGENCE LED POLICING. 3. Professional bodies like ISPON must take up the challenge of developing the infrastructure of collaboration and integration. Source: David Tukura: Re-Tooling Law Enforcement; ISPON Paper; Calabar; 2013 Such software will enable the following: 1. Automation of internal law enforcement processes and communication. You will be surprised that even in the law enforcement and security professions, internal breakdown in communication is common. 2. Automation of inter-agency communication. Such software should enable law enforcement; security; regulatory; judicial and penal systems communicate automatically with minimal human interference. 3. Software should also enable expert analytical usage. The system should have residual capacity to empower research, good internal administration; organizational support; planning and crime prevention. . Such software should also enable law enforcement and security agency interface with the public. The agencies should have ICT resources that would empower citizens information sharing with the agencies through lodging of complaints on human rights violations. 5. Such software should enable real-time intelligence gathering. The nature of cyber criminality; terrorism, money laundering and trans-border crimes some time requires that law enforcement agencies have “real-time” information and intelligence. This way, sensors; electronic and human surveillance systems can directly interface central intelligence stations. Such software would make the policeman as mobile and versatile as the criminal. 6. This presentation cannot be complete without the mention of biometrics. The dearth of biometric data systems in Nigeria has put criminals well ahead of law enforcement and security. This is an area where ISPON can make tangible contributions to making Nigeria secure and safe. 4 Thank You!!!!