Chapter 6 notes - Valley View High School

Chapter 6
Industrial Revolution
Warm Up
Warm- Up
How did inventions like the telephone,
automobile and airplane change our world?
Write three complete sentences.
Today’s Standard
• 10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial
Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and
the United States.
2. Examine how scientific and technological changes and
new forms of energy brought about
massive social,
economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and
discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis
Pasteur, Thomas Edison).
Chapter 6 Section 1
Main Idea:
• The factory system
changed the way people
lived and worked,
introducing a variety of
Why it Matters Now:
• Many less-developed
countries are undergoing
the difficult process of
industrialization today.
6.1 Vocabulary (Write the definitions)
• Dynamo
• Assembly line
• Stock
• Corporation
• Cartel
Industrialization Changes Ways of
• Industrial Revolution has both positive and
negative effects.
• Better quality of life.
• Jobs were created.
• Wealthy nations.
• Machines cause human suffering.
• Unhealthy working conditions.
• Class tensions.
Key factors for Industrialization
• Location/Geography
• Natural resources
• Large supply workers
• Investors
• Financial systems (banks, loans)
• Political stability
New Industrial Powers Emerge
• European countries and the United States race to
• They had more natural resources (name 2)
– Coal
– Iron
• Great Britain paved the way
• Germany and the U.S. become industrial powers
– 1871 Germany becomes united – leading them to
become the leading industrial power in Europe
– By 1900 U.S. was manufacturing about 30% of the worlds
industrial goods
Industrial Development in U.S.
• U.S. - more resources than Britain
• Northeast industrializes first
–Pittsburgh Steelers
• Technological boom: 1865-1900
• Entrepreneurs eager to invest
• Corporations - owned by
stockholders; goal is profit
Continental Europe
• Germany – pockets of
industrialization (spread out)
–Railroads become key factor for
–Imported British equipment &
engineers (1830’s)
–Children sent to British schools
Other Industrialized Nations
• Japan didn’t have resources, but became
industrialized in 1868
• Russia became industrialized 100 years after
Great Britain
– Unstable governments and geographical
conditions slow down industrialization
Technology and Industrial Growth
• Companies begin to hire
chemists and engineers to
create new products
• Steel production increases –
American inventor Henry
– Bessemer process – lighter,
harder, more durable, &
produced faster
Electric Power
• First seen in the late
• First simple electric motor
and dynamo invented by
English chemist Michael
• 1870’s – Thomas Edison
(American) made the first
electric light bulb
New Methods of production
• Interchangable parts
– Identical components that can be used in place
of one another
– Simplified both the assembly and repair of
• Assembly line
– Workers add parts to a product that moves
along a belt from one station to the next.
– Faster, cheaper and more efficient production
of goods
Transportation and Communication
• Automobile – aka “Horseless Carriages”
– Nikolaus Otto – gasoline powered internal
combustion engine
– Karl Benz – first patent for automobile
– Daimler introduces first automobile in 1887
– Ford takes the lead in 1900’s – makes U.S. leader in
automobile industry
• Airplanes – 1903
– Orville and Wilbur Wright design first plane
– Plane business takes off in the 1920’s
• Telephone – 1901
– Alexander Graham Bell (American) patented first
Identify the Pictures
Alfred Nobel made
millions from dynamite
and he donated his
money to the Nobel
Peace Prizes which are
still awarded today.
Samuel Morse’s telegraph
and Morse Code along
with Guglielmo Marconi’s
radio were communication
Business Takes a New Direction
• New tech. required lots of $$$$ (aka: Capital)
• Owners begin selling stock
– The selling of shares of a company to investors
• Large scale companies (steel foundries) need
more $ so they formed corporations
– Businesses that are owned by many investors who
buy shares of stocks.
• Monopolies –began to pop up
• But laws were eventually put into place to
stop this to allow free market trade.
Impact of Industrialization
• Poor can now buy what only the rich
used to be able to afford.
• Widens gap between industrialized &
non-industrialized nations
– Western countries become very powerful
– Exploitation of other countries’ resources
• Desire for more resources leads to
expansion (imperialism)
1. Crowded tenements and poor
sanitary conditions contributed to
which problem in old New York?
2. The conflict between Mayor
Fernando Wood and Tammany Hall
was primarily a conflict
between__________ and ___________.
3. What business is John D.
Rockefeller associated with?
Chapter 6 Section 2
6.2 Vocabulary (write definitions)
Urban renewal
Louis Pasteur
Mutual-aid society
Germ theory
Robert Koch
Florence Nightingale
Joseph Lister
Medicine Contributes to Population
• Between 1800 & 1900
European pop. Doubles
• Result of improved
nutrition, public
sanitation and medical
Medicine Advances Con’t
Germ Theory – the theory
that infectious diseases are
caused by certain microbes.
 Scientists did not believe him
1870 – Louis Pasteur
showed the connection
between microbes and
 He also created the vaccines
for rabies and anthrax
 Pasteurization – a process
that kills disease-carrying
microbes in milk
Improvements in Hospitals
• 1840’s – anesthetic is
used to relieve pain
during surgery
• Florence Nightingale
improves sanitation and
• Joseph Lister – discovered
how antiseptics
prevented infection
• Below: ___________
• Left:______________
City Life Changes
• Skyscrapers are built for
businesses (American invention)
• Streets become cleaner
• Urban renewal – rebuilding of
poor areas of a city.
– Paved streets, sidewalks
– Gas lamps, then electric lights were
used to illuminate streets
– Sewage systems were made
• Slums remained
– poorest families still forced to live in
over-crowded and poorly kept
– Crime and alcoholism
Working Class Advances
• Labor Unions – workers
– Mutual-aid societies: selfhelp groups to aid sick or
injured workers
• By late 1800’s workers
won the right to organize
• Main tactic of a union =
– Used to demand better
working conditions
– Pay, benefits, etc…
Standard of living increased
Labor Laws
• Labor Laws were passed
in several countries to
force factory owners to
raise the standard of
Pressured by unions, reformers, and
working-class voters, governments passed
laws to regulate working conditions. Early
laws forbade employers to hire children
under the age of ten. Later, laws were
passed outlawing child labor entirely and
banning the employment of women in
mines. Other laws limited work hours and
improved safety. By 1909, British coal
miners had won an eight-hour day, setting
a standard for workers in other countries.
In Germany, and then elsewhere, Western
governments established old-age
pensions, as well as disability insurance
for workers who were hurt or became ill.
These programs protected workers from
poverty once they were no longer able to
Chapter 6 Section 3
6.3 Vocabulary (write definitions)
• Charles Darwin
• Social gospel
• Racism
• Temperance movement
• Women’s suffrage
A New Social Order
Three Social Classes
Upper middle class –
wealthy business owners
and old aristocrats
Middle Class – mid-level
business people, doctors,
and scientists – begins
growing rapidly
Lower class – unskilled
workers and peasants.
cult of domesticity –
 Idealized women and the
 Women seen as tender, selfsacrificing caregiver
 Provides a good home
Middle Class Tastes and Values
Strict rules of etiquette governed…
How people dressed
How to give dinner parties
How to pay a social call
When to write letters
How long to mourn relatives
Women’s Rights
Early Voices
Women want:
Fairness in marriage
Property laws
Temperance laws
Voting rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
and Susan B. Anthony
 Advocated the end of slavery
 Eventually turned their
attention to women's rights.
Suffrage Struggle
By 1800’s some advancements had
been made
1848 Seneca Falls convention
 Women demand the right to vote
Some liberal men supported them
Common arguments against
women's suffrage
 Too emotional
 Women needed to be “protected”
from dirty politics
Women in the U.S. gain suffrage in
the early 1900’s – after WWI
Sojourner Truth
Some critics claimed that women
were too emotional to be allowed to
vote. Others argued that women
needed to be “protected” from
grubby politics or that a woman’s
place was in the home, not in
government. To such claims,
Sojourner Truth, an African American
suffragist, is believed to have replied,
“Nobody ever helps me into carriages,
or over mudpuddles, or gives me any
best place! And ain’t I a woman?”
Growth of Public Education
Public Ed. Improvements
Reformers persuaded gov’ts to
create public schools
 Teach – reading, writing and
 Punctuality, obedience to
authority, good work habits and
 Industrial societies = need for
literate workers
By late 1800’s more children in
Schools to train teachers were
In England schools became
Primary purpose of school for
women was to become better
wives and mothers
Higher Education
Most university students =
middle class
Curriculum emphasized
ancient history and languages,
philosophy, religion and law
1840’s some colleges for
 Bedford College – England
 Mount Holyoke – United States
Science Takes New Directions
• Atomic Theory :
– Developed by John Dalton
– Each element has its own
kind of atoms
– Different kinds of atoms
combine to make all
chemical substances
• New advances in Geology
– earth at least 2 billion
years old
Darwin's theory of Natural
• Wrote “On the Origins of
• All forms of life evolved into
present state over time
• Natural forces “selected”
those with best physical
“Survival of the Fittest”
Social Darwinism & Racism
Social Darwinism
• Social thinkers applied
Darwin's ideas to society
• “Survival of the Fittest”
• Only the strong are
meant to lead
• The most industrialized
and powerful countries
are meant to control the
Might = Right
• Unscientific belief that
one racial group is
superior to another
• People claimed that the
success of western
civilization was due to
the supremacy of the
white race.
Compassion and Charity
Created schools and hospitals in slums
Social gospel=social service
Brought about reforms in housing, health, and
• Salvation Army
Chapter 6 Section 4
6.4 Vocabulary
William Wordsworth
Ludwig van Beethoven
Claude Monet
Vincent van Gogh
Freidrich: Cloister Graveyard in the Snow (1810)
Romanticism Defined
• A movement in art and ideas
• A turn from reason to emotion,
imagination, and freedom
–Deep interest in feelings, glorification
of nature, gothic horror, folk
traditions, the supernatural, and the
• A reaction against Enlightenment
and the Industrial Revolution
Freidrich: Cloister Graveyard in the Snow (1810)
Freidrich: Man and Woman Contemplating the
Moon (1830-1835)
The Sleep
of Reason
Goya: The
Sabbath of
Saturn Devouring
His Children by
Francisco Goya
Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix
Romantic Literature
• Romantic Hero
– Melancholy, brooding (Ex. Jane Eyre)
• Myths, legends, & Fairy Tales
Often dark; castles; nationalism
Grimm Brothers’ Fairy Tales
Three Musketeers
Hunchback of Notre Dame
• Gothic Horror
– supernatural, violent, emotional
– Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
Romantic Music
• Beethoven
• Chopin
A reaction to
Realism Defined
• Represented in art and literature
• Showed life as it is (Charles Dickens)
• Interest in science and scientific
– objective observation; reporting the facts
– Wanted to improve the lives of
• Photography – captured the “real
Corot: The View of Rome and the Tiber River
Millet: The Gleaners
daguerreotype by
Richard Lowe of
Louis Daguerre-Photographer
• By the 1840s, a new art form, photography, was emerging.
Louis Daguerre (dah gehr) in France and William Fox Talbot in
England had improved on earlier technologies to produce
successful photographs. At first, many photos were stiff,
posed portraits of middle-class families or prominent people.
Other photographs reflected the romantics’ fascination with
faraway places.
• In time, photographers used the camera to present the grim
realities of life. During the American Civil War, Mathew B.
Brady preserved a vivid, realistic record of the corpse-strewn
battlefields. Other photographers showed the harsh
conditions in industrial factories or slums.
First American Daguerreotype, 1839
Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet
The Gross Clinic by
Thomas Eakins
Realistic Literature
• Oliver Twist
• Les Miserables by Hugo
• Emile Zola
• Started in Paris
• About not blending brush strokes
• Learned that the human eye could blend the
• Sought to capture the first fleeting impression
made by a scene or object on the viewer’s
Claude Monet Water Lilies
Claude Monet Venice Twilight
George Seurat