Outcome of the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit and nuclear security culture JK Lee, Counselor, Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea April 24, 2012, CBN Security Culture Seminar Contents 1. Summit Overview 2. Seoul Communiqué 3. Achievement of the Seoul Summit 4. Future Tasks 5. Nuclear Security Culture 1 Summit Overview : Programme March 26 Working Dinner - Review of the Progress Made Since the 2010 Washington Summit March 27 Plenary I & II -National Measures and International Cooperation to Enhance Nuclear Security, including Future Commitments Working Lunch - Nuclear Security-Safety Interface 1 1 Summit Overview : Participants 53 heads of states and governments + 4 international organizations = 58 leaders Azerbaijan, Denmark, Gabon, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, INTERPOL 2 1 Summit Overview : New Elements Extended participating states and international organization - 6 more countries + Interpol One Summit document – Seoul Communiqué Inclusion of radioactive sources in 11 areas of priority Addressing the issue of nuclear security and safety interface Enhanced visibility of the role of the IAEA in nuclear security Extended Outreach + Awareness raising Enhancing Nuclear Security Culture 3 2 Seoul Communiqué – Preamble(Major Principles) Renew the political will generated from the 2010 Washington NSS … Defeating [nuclear terrorism] requires strong national measures and international cooperation … Reaffirm our shared goals of nuclear disarmament, nuclear nonproliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy Stress the fundamental responsibility of States to maintain effective security of all nuclear material [Nuclear security] will not hamper the rights of States [for the peaceful use of nuclear energy] Noting the nexus between nuclear security and nuclear safety, ... address ... in a coherent manner 4 2 Seoul Communiqué – 11 Key Elements Key Elements Specific Measures Agreed 1.Global nuclear security architecture - Universal adherence to the amended CPPNM & ICSANT Entry into force of the amended CPPNM by 2014 Wider participation in the GICNT IAEA coordination conference on nuclear security in 2013 2. Role of the IAEA - Central role of the IAEA - Contribution to the IAEA NSF 3. Nuclear materials - Minimization of HEU/Pu - Voluntary announcement by 2013 of specific actions on HEU minimization - Converting research reactors and medical isotope production facilities from using HEU to LEU - Developing options for national policies on HEU management 4. Radioactive sources - Securing radioactive sources widely used and vulnerable to malicious acts - Establishing national registers of high-activity radioactive sources 5. Nuclear safety & security - Address both measures in a coherent & synergistic way - Encourage the IAEA to study the nexus between the two - Better secure spent fuel and radioactive waste 5 2 Seoul Communiqué – 11 Key Elements Key Elements Specific Measures Agreed 6. Transportation security - Share best practices and establish domestic tracking mechanism 7. Illicit Trafficking - Participating in the IAEA’s ITDB, strengthening related national capabilities - Cooperation with INTERPOL 8. Nuclear Forensics - Cooperating to build nuclear forensics capacity 9. Nuclear Security Culture - Establishing COEs and sharing information - Encouraging communication and coordination among interested parties 10. Information Security - Enhancing the security of nuclear-security related information, including cyber-security 11. International Cooperation - Encouraging the support of the international community to the countries in need - Reaffirming the need to raise public awareness 6 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (1) ① Minimizing and Securing Nuclear Materials HEU equivalent to 3,000 nuclear weapons downblended in US, Russia Russia-US PMDA → disposal of 68 M/T of Pu (enough for 17,000 nuclear weapons) when implemented Kazakhstan moved spent fuels (HEU 10M/T, Pu 3M/T) to a new facility for long-term secure storage (enough for 775 nuclear weapons) 530kg of HEU removed from eight countries 7 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (2) Sweden returned a few kg of Pu to the US Eight countries newly pledged to remove HEU/Pu * Poland, Hungary, Czech, Vietnam, Canada, Belgium, Australia, Italy Countries will voluntarily announce specific actions to minimize the use of HEU by the end of 2013 (Seoul Communiqué) Developing options for national policies on HEU management in the framework of IAEA (Seoul Communiqué) 8 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (3) ② Converting Research Reactors and Medical Isotope Production Facilities From Using HEU Fuel to LEU Fuel Kazakhstan, US, Russia, Canada, China, Hungary, Poland pledged to convert research reactors from HEU based to LEU based ROK-US-Belgium-France project on testing the performance of the high-density LEU (U-Mo) fuel powder developed by the ROK US-France-Belgium-Netherlands project on the production of medical isotope (Mo-99) using LEU targets by 2015 9 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (4) ③ Strengthening the Global Nuclear Security Architecture Bringing the amended CPPNM into force by 2014 (Seoul Communiqué) * 14 countries and 20 countries ratified ICSANT and amended CPPNM respectively, since the Washington Summit * 15 countries announced plans to ratify the ICSANT and/or the CPPNM 6 countries joined the GICNT (Total number : 82 countries) Supporting the 1540 Committee and the Global Partnership with extended mandate 10 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (5) ④ Emphasizing the central role of IAEA Recognizing the value of IAEA Nuclear Security Plan 2010-2013 Encouraging countries to increase contribution to Nuclear Security Fund (NSF) Welcoming IAEA’s plan on international coordination conference in 2013 11 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (6) ⑤ Strengthening the Management of Radiological Materials to Prevent Radiological Terrorism Reflecting IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources into national practices ⑥ Addressing Nuclear Security and Safety in a Coherent and Synergistic Way Maintaining effective emergency preparedness, response and mitigation capabilities Welcoming IAEA’s efforts to provide recommendations on interface between security and safety Agreeing to better secure spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste 12 3 Achievements of the Seoul NSS (7) ⑦ Preventing the Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials Building nuclear forensics capacity to identify the source of illicitly trafficked materials Sharing information with INTERPOL ⑧ Fostering a Nuclear Security Culture Centers of Excellence under construction or plan in 15 countries Recognizing the role of private sector as stakeholders : parallel events (Industry Summit and Symposium) 53 Countries Announced Over 100 Commitments 13 4 Future Tasks Implementing National Commitments, Joint Statement and Agreed Measures in the Seoul Communiqué Increasing Transparency and Outreach Activities Strengthening universality in nuclear security → “Emphasizing the need for the involvement of all Member States … in an inclusive manner, and noting the role that int’l processes …, including NSS, could play … “ (2011 IAEA Resolution on Nuclear Security) Outreach activities : IAEA / UN / regional hubs 14 4 Future Tasks Establishing Standards and Common Rules for Nuclear Security Efficient Review Mechanism : Peer Review / Mandatory Review National Progress Report, IAEA IPPAS Long-Term Global Nuclear Security Governance Need to develop global nuclear security governance 15 5 Nuclear Security Culture in the NSS Process 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit 8. Acknowledge the need for capacity building for nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels for the promotion of nuclear security culture through technology development, human resource development, education, and training; and stress the importance of optimizing international cooperation and coordination of assistance; 10. Recognize the continuing role of nuclear industry, including the private sector, in nuclear security and will work with industry to ensure the necessary priority of physical protection, material accountancy, and security culture; Participating States will work, in guiding the nuclear industry, to promote and sustain strong nuclear security culture and corporate commitment to implement robust security practices, …. Participating States encourage nuclear operators and architect/ engineering firms to take into account and incorporate, where appropriate, effective measures of physical protection and security culture into the planning, construction, and operation of civilian nuclear facilities and provide technical assistance, upon request, to other States in doing so. Emphasizing the importance of the human dimension of nuclear security, the need to enhance security culture, and the need to maintain a well-trained cadre of technical experts: … 16 5 Nuclear Security Culture in the NSS Process Seoul Communiqué Recognizing that investment in human capacity building is fundamental to promoting and sustaining a strong nuclear security culture, we encourage States to share best practices and build national capabilities, including through bilateral and multilateral cooperation. At the national level, we encourage all stakeholders, including the government, regulatory bodies, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations and the media, to fully commit to enhancing security culture and to maintain robust communication and coordination of activities. We also encourage States to promote human resource development through education and training. In this regard, we welcome the establishment of Centers of Excellence and other nuclear security training and support centers since the Washington Summit, and encourage the establishment of new centers. Furthermore, we welcome the effort by the IAEA to promote networking among such centers to share experience and lessons learned and to optimize available resources. We also note the holding of the Nuclear Industry Summit and the Nuclear Security Symposium on the eve of the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. 17 5 Nuclear Security Culture in the NSS Process Nuclear Security Training Centers(CoEs) Since the Washington Summit, countries are establishing Centers of Excellence (CoE) to enhance national nuclear security capabilities. In addition to the six countries - China, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea – which have announced plans to establish a CoE at the Washington Summit, around ten countries are either establishing a CoE or have plans in this regard. Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Training and Support Centers On the occasion of their participation in the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, Algeria, Australia, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States(24) note their intent to collaborate in the form of the International Network for Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres (NSSCs) aiming to build up a cadre of highly qualified and well trained nuclear security personnel, provide specific technical support required for effective use and maintenance of instruments and other nuclear security technical systems, as well as provide scientific support for the etection of and the response to nuclear security events in a country. 18 Official Theme Song of the Summit Singer: Lena (Jung-hyun) Park “Peace Song” shows Korea’s willingness to create a world free of nuclear terrorism and promote world peace It doesn’t matter who you are, And no matter where you’re from, we are We all are one with all our beating hearts we strive, we struggle, so let all the dreams that move us The hopes and the desires within us be common ground And let it lead our way Reach and we’ll take the skies There’s no such thing as impossible To keep our children laughing here and now, and forever more Reach and we’ll see and finally understand peace can be Be this real place, this will be reality “BEYOND SECURITY TOWARDS PEACE” THANK YOU! 감사합니다!