Document

advertisement
THE WORLDWIDE
GRAPHIC LANGUAGE
FOR DESIGN
CHAPTER ONE
OBJECTIVES
1. Describe the role of drawings in the design process.
2. Contrast concurrent versus traditional design
processes.
3. List five professions that use technical drawings.
4. Describe four creativity techniques.
5. Explain why standards are important.
6. Identify uses of the graphic language.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
2
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
UNDERSTANDING THE
ROLE OF TECHNICAL DRAWINGS
Technical drawings serve one of three purposes:
• Visualization
• Communication
• Documentation
(Courtesy of Seymourpowell.)
(Courtesy of Woods Power-Grip Co., Inc.)
(Courtesy of Dynojet Research, Inc.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
3
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Concept Sketches
Exploring many design options
through quick sketches
(Courtesy of Lunar Design.)
(Courtesy of Seymourpowell.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
4
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
The Stages of the Design Process
1. Problem identification: First, a clear statement of
the need for and objectives for the design must
be written.
2. Ideation: Technical sketches are often used to
convey concepts to multidisciplinary teams.
3. Refinement/analysis: Designs may be rethought,
based on engineering analysis. CAD models and
sketches are useful during the analysis and
compromise stage. Accurate 2D or 3D CAD
models and drawings are created to refine the
design.
4. Implementation/documentation: Production
and/or working drawings providing the details of
manufacture and assembly are finalized and
approved.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
5
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Concurrent Engineering
Traditionally, design and manufacturing activities have taken place in sequential
order rather than concurrently (simultaneously). This step-by-step approach
seems logical, but in practice it has been found to be wasteful.
Concurrent engineering
is a systematic approach that integrates
the design and manufacture of products
with the goal of optimizing all elements
involved in the life cycle of the product.
The Concurrent Process
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
6
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Life cycle design
Life cycle design means that all
aspects of a product (such as design,
development, production, distribution,
use, and its ultimate disposal and
recycling) are considered
simultaneously.
The basic goals of concurrent
engineering are to minimize product
design and engineering changes and to
reduce the time and cost involved in
taking a product from design concept
through production and ultimately to
introduction into the marketplace.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
7
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Computer-Aided Design
and Product Development
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
CAD allows for a range of activities, from
modeling 2D and 3D geometry to creating
drawings that document the design for
manufacturing and legal considerations.
CAE allows users to simulate and analyze
structures that will be subject to various temperatures, static
loads, or fluctuating loads.
CAM provides computerized control for manufacturing processes.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
8
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
The Digital Database
All the information to manage, design, analyze, simulate, package, market, and manufacture a product
can be shared with a diverse group of users through a single complex digital database.
(Courtesy of Parametric Technology Corporation)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
9
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Designing Quality into Products
DFSS Design for Six Sigma is an approach that uses engineering and
statistical tools to design products in a way that predicts and minimizes
customer and manufacturing problems.
Six Sigma is a process originated at Motorola to improve quality by
reducing or eliminating defects.
DMAIC Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control are steps
defined in a continuous improvement process that attempts to define
and ensure critical to function (CTF) characteristics.
QFD Quality Function Deployment is a tool for decision making that
helps companies focus on a customer-driven approach and set of
product characteristics.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
10
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 1
Identify the Customer and the Problem
The engineering design process begins
with recognizing or identifying these
needs and considering the economic
feasibility of fulfilling them.
A successful design must not only solve
the problem but also meet the needs and
wishes of the customer.
(Project developed and created by Philips Design.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
11
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 2
Generate Concepts
During this stage, often called the ideation stage, many ideas—reasonable
and otherwise—are collected.
The ability to freely create
technical sketches lets you
present and share ideas and
record them so you can refer
to solutions, inspirations, and
breakthroughs that come to
light during this creative stage
of the process.
(Courtesy of Seymourpowell.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
12
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 3
Compromise Solutions
The design team
selects various features
of the concepts
generated in the
ideation stage and
combines them into one
or more promising
compromise solutions.
2D CAD Drawing. (Courtesy of Seymourpowell.)
Many of these problems are solved graphically, using schematic drawings in which
various parts are shown in skeleton form. For example, pulleys and gears are
represented by circles, an arm by a single line, and a path of motion by centerlines
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
13
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 4
Models and Prototypes
Design teams often
construct a model to
scale to study, analyze,
and refine a design.
3D CAD Model of the SAAR Brake. (Courtesy
of Dynojet Research, Inc.)
3D CAD Model. This 3D CAD model of a design for the Mars rover was constructed
to act as a virtual prototype for the design. (Courtesy of Byron Johns.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
14
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Rapid Prototyping
Rapid prototyping systems allow designers to generate parts quickly,
directly from 3D models, for mockup and testing.
Rapid Prototyping. The ZPrinter 450 from Zcorp “printed” the
colored part shown in about four hours. (Courtesy of Z
Corporation.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
15
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 5
Production or Working Drawings
The drawings, showing the
necessary views, include
the material, dimensions,
required tolerances, notes,
and other information
needed to describe each
part sufficiently for it to be
manufactured consistently.
These drawings of the
individual parts are also
known as detail drawings.
Detail Drawing for the SAAR Brake Air Can Mounting Bracket.
(Courtesy of Dynojet Research, Inc.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
16
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Assembly Drawings
An assembly drawing, shows how all the parts go together in
the complete product.
Assembly Drawing for the SAAR Brake. (Courtesy of Dynojet Research, Inc.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
17
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
DRAFTING STANDARDS
There are standards that support a uniform, effective graphic language for
use in industry, manufacturing, engineering, and science.
In the United States, providing these
standards has been the work of the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) with the American Society for
Engineering Education (ASEE), the
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
and the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME).
International standards, often defined by
the International Organization for
Standardization (IOS), and the ASME or
ANSI standards for drawing practices are
similar in many respects.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
18
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
How do you develop new ideas?
Examine Manufactured Products
Study the Natural World
Research Patent Drawings
Watch the Web
Design Groups
The following websites are useful for engineering
design:
• http://www.yahoo.com/headlines/ Yahoo’s site for the latest
technology news and a one-week archive
• http://www.techweb.com/TechWeb site from CMP media
• http://www.uspto.gov/ U.S. Patent Office on-line search site
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
19
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
PRODUCT DEFINITION
Product definition refers to the collection of digital or hard copy documents
that specify the physical and functional requirements for a product.
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
20
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
SHOWING THE DESIGN PROCESS IN A
PORTFOLIO
A portfolio is a
representative
sample of work that
helps communicate
your skills and
talents, usually to a
prospective
employer or client.
(Courtesy of John Mountz.)
Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 14/e
Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman
21
© 2012, 2009, 2003, Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Download