Europe before Transatlantic Travel Topic 5 Ancient Greece Valued Reason and deep thinking. Three Great Thinkers: Socrates – question your thoughts and beliefs Plato – The Republic described an ideal society Aristotle – taught to live based on reason Athens started democracy; all male citizens participated in the government Ancient Rome Roman Republic was another form of democracy Elected representatives for one year Laws were kept on display in public places Believed in innocent until proven guilty and equality for all citizens The Middle Ages in Europe Lasted about 1,000 years. People followed the feudal system Nearly everyone was Catholic Christian. The Crusades Series of Holy Wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia (today’s Middle East). Christians wanted control of Palestine and the “Holy Lands”. Started permanent trade with countries in Asia. Travel and Growth Technology in the early 1100s made farming easier. Population gets larger. Cities become larger. Travel becomes safer, Increased trade along a trade route called the Silk Road. Marco Polo – famous Italian traveller and merchant that brought back ideas, spices, paper money, even spaghetti! The Black Death Around 1345, the Black Death is brought back to Europe through trade. It kills about 25 million! Everything is effected. Workers are scarce, so they start demanding better treatment and conditions. Begin seeing trade guilds and a middle class emerge. The Renaissance Means “rebirth” Love of education during this period. Rulers had relative peace and control. Advances in Art, literature, science, politics, value of human individuals. Begins in Italy, spreads across Europe. Leaders of the Renaissance Michelangelo – painter, sculptor, architect Leonardo da Vinci – painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, engineer, mapmaker. Dante Alighieri – writer Wrote in Italian instead of latin – BIG step to making education available to everyone Johannes Gutenberg – developed a printing press with movable type.