Posibles modelos de articulación industrial

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POSIBLES MODELOS DE

ARTICULACIÓN INDUSTRIAL

CARLOS RONDEROS Ph.D

Consejo Económico Colombo-Asiático

Mayo 2013

MADE IN THE WORLD

Today, companies divide their operations across the world, from the design of the product and manufacturing of components to assembly and marketing, creating international production chains.

More and more products are “Made in the World ” rather than

“Made in the UK” or “Made in France”. The statistical bias created by attributing the full commercial value to the last country of origin can pervert the political debate on the origin of the imbalances and lead to misguided, and hence counter-productive, decisions. The challenge is to find the right statistical bridges between the different statistical frameworks and national accounting systems to ensure that international interactions resulting from globalization are properly reflected and to facilitate cross border dialogue between national decision makers.

EL RETO

¿Cómo lograr cada vez mayores niveles de apertura de la mano de una creciente industrialización?.

¿Cómo fortalecemos las bases industriales existentes en los países andinos?

COSTO DE TRANSICION

Al abrir sus economías los países reasignan recursos hacía aquellos sectores que son competitivos.

Si la reasignación es al interior de los sectores industriales existentes los costos de transición son menores y se realizan de manera más acelerada.

ASIA LA REGIÓN DE MAYOR

CRECIMIENTO

Asia and the Pacific constitutes the most dynamic region in the world today: It has rapidly moved from an agrarian economy to an industrialized economy which has modified its ways of production and consumption and resource use patterns. Domestic material consumption grew at a compounding annual rate of 4.9% over the three decades from

1975 – 2005. The corresponding growth rate for the rest of the world was around 0.5%;(UNEP)

CONTINUA

The East Asia and Pacific region continues to be an engine of global growth, contributing around 40 percent of global growth in 2012.

Driven by strong domestic demand, the region grew at 7.5 percent in 2012 -- higher than any other region in the world. World Bank

China is projected to grow 8.3 percent in 2013 and 8.0 percent in 2014.

2000 2001

PIB PER CAPITA

2011

PARTICIPACIÓN EXPORTACIONES MUNDIALES %

ASIA NO TIENE NIVELES DE PROTECCIÓN SUPERIORES A COLOMBIA

APERTURA Y CRECIMIENTO EN ASIA

The evidence on this is clear. No country in recent decades has achieved economic success, in terms of substantial increases in living standards for its people, without being open to the rest of the world. In contrast, trade opening (along with opening to foreign direct investment) has been an important element in the economic success of East Asia, where the average import tariff has fallen from 30 percent to 10 percent over the past 20 year-IMF

Opening up their economies to the global economy has been essential in enabling many developing countries to develop competitive advantages in the manufacture of certain products

EL NUEVO ENTORNO

“La evolución de la organización industrial a escala global afecta no solo la suerte de las firmas y la estructura de la industria, sino también define como y porque los países avanzan en la economía global. El trabajo de investigación acerca de las cadenas de valor mundial y la política correspondiente examina las maneras diferentes en las cuales la producción global y los sistema de distribución se integran, y la posibilidad que tienen las empresas de los países en desarrollo de desarrollar su posición en el mercado global”

(Gereffi 2005)

C

A

D

E

N

A

D

E

Uso

Final

V

A

L

O

R

MERCADO MODULAR RELACIONAL CAUTIVA JERARQUICA

Firma

Líder

Firma

Integrada

Consumidores

Firma

Líder

Firma

Líder

Precio

Proveedor

Llave en

Mano

Proveedor

Relacional

Proveedores de

Componentes y materiales

Proveedores de

Componentes y materiales

Proveedores

Cautivos

Proveedores

Materia les

Bajo

Grado de Coordinación Explícita

Grado de Asimetría de poder

Alto

Integración con las firmas globales

The global reorganization of manufacturing, which is referred to as the new international division of labor, is considered by some to be the defining characteristic of the latest wave of globalization (Fröbel, Heinrichs and Kreye

1980;Castells 1996; Hoogvelt 1997). Scholars think that manufacturing is now organized through complex networks of firms, which are sometimes labeled as Global (Yunus Kaya

2011)

Integración de las firmas Globales

Commodity Chains or Global Value Chains (e.g., Gereffi

2005; Dicken 2003). Within these networks, firms from developed economies relocate their manufacturing activities in developing countries by investing in or subcontracting, while they focus on higher value activities such as research and development, and marketing (Gereffi 2001; Kaplinksy 2000). This, then, translates into increasing manufacturing exports and

FDI, and expanding manufacturing employment indeveloping countries.

Yunus Kaya

OMC

Global value chains translate into growth, jobs, and development. Better information on their functioning and impact, on how trade opening and adjustment assistance supports the fragmentation of production, and on how economies, firms and individuals may benefit from it could help to strengthen public support for open markets and help poverty alleviation

MEXICO CONFIRMA LA TEORIA

“La evolución del índice de comercio intraindustrial de México muestra que se ha dado un aumento notable de la parte del comercio internacional que corresponde a intercambios en bienes similares. Ello es un indicador del cambio estructural en el patrón del comercio exterior de México. …..El aumento del

índice de comercio intraindustrial es un indicador más del cambio del patrón del comercio exterior que se ha operado en las últimas dos décadas. La expansión del comercio exterior observada se asocia no tanto a factores de ventaja comparativa de unas industrias sobre otras, como lo señala la teoría tradicional del comercio internacional, sino que se vincula a la expansión de modelos de producción compartida y a la especialización internacional dentro de cada sector.”

(Moreno&Viquiera 2007)

HACER LA TAREA

Contrast, there are successful examples of “upscaling” within global manufacturing linkages by Asian countries such as China, South Korea and Taiwan, among others. governments of India, South Korea, Taiwan or China set up state-owned Research and Development laboratories (R&D) while also invested in higher education. Official measures focused on strengthening the network of suppliers to “leading” company through the substitution of imported inputs (parts and components), the advance of science and technology, and regional development

ESTUDIO DE 64 PAÍSES EN

DESARROLLO 1980-203

The effect of globalization on manufacturing employment is mainly through international trade Yunus Kaya while FDI flow has no effect. FDI stock in secondary sector has a significant positive effect on industrialization in developing countries when added to the models, while FDI flows in this sector has no effect. These suggest that direct investment in developing countries by foreign companies may be less important in the global reorganization of manufacturing than the trade between these companies and the companies from developing countries

Thus, integration into the world economy does not appear to have an overwhelming negative effect on industrialization in developing countries.

(Yunus Kaya 2011)

EL CASO DE VIETNAM

APERTURA TEXTILES Y CONFECCIONES

Khalisd Nadu et.al (2004). Journal of International Development)

MODELO ACTUAL

El modelo de ensamble puede no ser la mejor opción pues se necesita que el producto se adapta a las condiciones de país (Consumidor, clima, preferencias).

Para ello se requiere que parte del desarrollo de producto se realice en

Colombia y ello permite adaptar al mercado local. En algunos casos

Puede llegar a ser necesario el desarrollo de un nuevo producto

DESARROLLO PARCIAL DE PRODUCTO

MODELO DE DESARROLLO INDUSTRIAL

The last stage of industrial cooperation is arrived when the value chain of Korea is integrated with that of Colombia, and

Korean companies, in cooperation with Colombian companies, develop new market in Latin American countries

CADENA DE VALOR

CADENAS POSIBLES CON COREA

Sector Automotriz

Sector Textil

Sector Eléctrico

Cosméticos

Petroquímica

Software

Industria Gráfica

METODOLOGÍA

Identificación de empresas en Corea y

Colombia

Identificación de elementos de competitividad

Análisis SWAT

Definición de etapas de cooperación e integración de las cadenas.

Inversión Extranjera

Desarrollo de tecnología

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