INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE MS. ZUCHNIK WHAT IS FORENSIC SCIENCE? • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_58XsN6XJWQ WHAT IS FORENSICS?? • In its broadest definition, forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws. • The goal of this class is to show how science plays a crucial role in criminal justice • Forensic science owes its origins to individuals such as Bertillon, Galton, Lattes, Goddard, Osborn, and Locard, who developed the principles and techniques needed to identify or compare physical evidence. HISTORY • Roots reach back to the third century • Early Developments • Third century China, a report Yi Yu Ji reported how a coroner solved a murder case • Woman suspected of killing her husband and burning the body • This type of forensic ‘science’ was not heavily practiced that early HISTORY • Twentieth-Century Breakthroughs • Edmond Locard pioneered the crime lab • Locard’s Exchange Principle—states that when a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs. HISTORY • Mathieu Orfila—the father of forensic toxicology. • Alphonse Bertillion—devised the first scientific system of personal identification in 1879. • Francis Galton—conducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification. • Leone Lattes—developed a procedure to determine blood type from dried bloodstains. • Calvin Goddard—used a comparison microscope to determine if a particular gun fired a bullet. • Albert Osborn—developed the fundamental principles of document examination. HISTORY • Walter McCrone—utilized microscopy and other analytical methodologies to examine evidence. • Hans Gross—wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation. • Edmond Locard—incorporared Gross’ principles within a workable crime laboratory. • Sir Alec Jeffreys—developed the first DNA profiling test in 1984. THE CRIME LAB • Crime labs are facilities specifically dedicated to forensic analysis of criminal evidence • History of Crime Labs in the United States • The oldest forensic lab in the US is with the LAPD created in 1923 • In 1932 the FBI organized a national laboratory offering forensic services • This lab is now the largest in the world performing over a million examinations a year THE CRIME LAB Why have we seen growth in crime labs? • Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s forced police to be MORE secure with their evidence • Modern technology has provided forensic science the tools it needed to grow and be more credible • Also there has been an increase in crime rates • Drug-abuse increasing • DNA profiling technology increasing THE CRIME LAB THE CRIME LAB • There are 4 major federal crime laboratories • The FBI Lab mentioned earlier • The DEA labs focusing on drug seized in violation of federal laws • The BATFE or Department of Justice analyze alcohol, firearms, and tobacco regulations and laws • US Postal Inspection Service- criminal investigations with mail THE CRIME LAB • Services of the Crime Lab • There is wide variation due to • Variations in local laws • Different capabilities and functions of the organization for which the lab is attached • Budgetary and staffing limits • Many crime labs solely process drug specimens THE CRIME LAB • Basic Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Laboratories • Physical science unit principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology use chemical tests and modern analytical instrumentation to examine drugs, glass, paint, explosives, and soil • Biology unit biologists and biochemists performing DNA profiling THE CRIME LAB • Firearms Unit examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells and ammunition • The basic principles of firearm examinations are also applied here to the comparison of marks made by tools • Document examination unit studies handwriting an typewriting on questions documents, also may analyze paper or ink • Photography unit examines and records physical evidence. Prepares photographic evidence for courtrooms THE CRIME LAB • Optional services provided by full-service crime labs • Toxicology unit examines body fluids and organs to determine presence or absence or poisons and drugs. This is frequently done by the medical examiner’s office • Latent fingerprint unit examines evidence for prints • Polygraph unit many times found in the law enforcement, done by criminal investigator, though sometimes in labs THE CRIME LAB • Voiceprint analysis unit specialize in voice identification, look at a graphic representation of a voice • Crime-scene invesigation unit specially trained personnel to collect and preserve physical evidene to be processed at the lab • Other Forensic Science Services • Forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic entomology THE CRIME LAB • Forensic psychiatry looks at human behavior and legal proceedings, used in both civil and criminal cases • Forensic odontology dental evidence, like identifying a body, or bite marks • Forensic engineering failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires or explosions • Forensic computer and digital analysis identifying, collecting, preserving, and examining info from computers or cell phones….etc.