Software Architecture Patterns (2)

Software Architecture Patterns (2)
what is architecture? (recap)
o an overall blueprint/model describing
the structures and properties of a
o designed mechanisms (causal chains &
loops) which lead to o emergent (intended) behaviour (but
always some unintended behaviour as
o "mapping" the boundaries (questions
about the level of "closure")
software architecture…
- Captures the gross structure of a system
- How it is composed of interacting parts
- How the interactions take place
- Key properties of the parts
- Provides a way of analysing systems at a
high level of abstraction !
- Illuminates top-level design decisions
software architecture patterns (1)
Architectural pattern are software patterns that offer
well-established solutions to architectural problems in
software engineering. It gives description of the
elements and relation type together with a set of
constraints on how they may be used. An
architectural pattern expresses a fundamental
structural organization schema for a software system,
which consists of subsystems, their responsibilities
and interrelations. In comparison to design patterns,
architectural patterns are larger in scale.
software architecture patterns (2)
• The fundamental problem to be solved with a large
system is how to break it into chunks manageable
for human programmers to understand, implement,
and maintain.
• Large-scale patterns for this purpose are called
architectural patterns. Design patterns are similar,
but lower level and smaller scale than architectural
typical architectural patterns (styles)
- How can I integrate multiple applications so that they
work together and can exchange information?
integration styles for (enterprise) messaging
File Transfer
Shared Database
Remote Procedure
pipes and filters
The Pipes and Filters architectural pattern
[style] provides a structure for systems that
process a stream of data. Each processing
step is encapsulated in a filter component.
Data is passed through pipes between
adjacent filters. Recombining filters allows
you to build families of related systems.
[POSA p53]
example: traditional ‘nix pipes & filters
e.g. using sed and awk
example: Apache Cacoon’s pipes & xslt filters
blackboard architectural pattern (1)
"The Blackboard architectural pattern is useful for problems for
which no deterministic solution strategies are known. In
Blackboard several specialized subsystems assemble their
knowledge to build a possibility partial or approximate solution."
(Buschmann, F., R. Meunier, H. Rohnert, P. Sommerlad, and M.
Stal. Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: A System Of
Patterns. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
The Blackboard pattern decouples interacting agents from each
other. Instead of communicating directly, agents interact
through the mediation of an intermediary agent. This
intermediary provides both time and location transparency to
the interacting agents. Transparency of time is achieved as
agents who want to exchange data don't have to receive the
data when it is sent but can pick it up later. The locations of the
receiving agents are transparent in that the sending agent does
not need to address any other agent specifically by its name;
the mediator forwards the data accordingly.
blackboard architectural pattern (2)
The blackboard is an example of a passive coordination
medium. While it allows agents to share data, it does not
specify how the agents are expected to react to the data
they receive. In other words, all the real coordination
knowledge remains hidden in the agents.
tiered/layered architecture example:
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) & Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
tiered architecture (layering)
2 - tier architecture (traditional client-server)
A two-way interaction in a client/server
environment, in which the user interface is stored
in the client and the data are stored in the server.
The application logic can be in either the client or
the server.
3 tier architecture
model-view-controller (1)
The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking
an application, or even just a piece of an
application's interface, into three parts: the
model, the view, and the controller. MVC
was originally developed to map the
traditional input, processing, output roles
into the GUI realm:
Input  Processing  Output
Controller  Model  View
model-view-controller (2)
The pattern isolates business logic from input
and presentation, permitting independent
development, testing and maintenance of
mvc Model
It is the domain-specific representation of the data on
which the application operates. Domain logic adds
meaning to raw data (for example, calculating
whether today is the user's birthday, or the totals,
taxes, and shipping charges for shopping cart items).
When a model changes its state, it notifies its
associated views so they can refresh.
Many applications use a persistent storage
mechanism (such as a database) to store data. MVC
does not specifically mention the data access layer
because it is understood to be underneath or
encapsulated by the model. Models are not data
access objects although in very simple apps, with
little domain logic, there is no real distinction to be
made. Also, the ActiveRecord is an accepted design
pattern which merges domain logic and data access
code - a model which knows how to persist itself.
mvc View
Renders the model into a form suitable for
interaction, typically a user interface element.
Multiple views can exist for a single model for
different purposes.
mvc Controller
Receives input and initiates a response by
making calls on model objects.
An MVC application may be a collection of
model/view/controller triplets, each
responsible for a different UI element.
PHP MVC Frameworks
lots and lots…
codeigniter, cake, kohana, jelix, limonade,
mojavi, zend, zoop, symfony etc. etc.
mvc fat v. thin controllers
ruby on rails ‘fat’ model, ‘thin’ controller approach
rails Mvc : model
ActiveRecord :
– Maintains the relationship between Object and
Database and handles validation, association,
transactions, and more.
– This subsystem is implemented in
ActiveRecord library which provides an
interface and binding between the tables in a
relational database and the Ruby program
code that manipulates database records. Ruby
method names are automatically generated
from the field names of database tables, and
so on.
rails mVc : view
ActionView :
– A presentation of data in a particular format,
triggered by a controller's decision to present
the data. They are script based templating
systems like JSP, ASP, PHP and very easy to
integrate with AJAX technology.
– This subsystem is implemented in ActionView
library which is an Embedded Ruby (ERb)
based system for defining presentation
templates for data presentation. Every Web
connection to a Rails application results in the
displaying of a view.
rails mvC : controller
ActionController :
– The facility within the application that directs
traffic, on the one hand querying the models
for specific data, and on the other hand
organizing that data (searching, sorting,
massaging it) into a form that fits the needs of
a given view.
– This subsystem is implemented in
ActionController which is a data broker sitting
between ActiveRecord (the database
interface) and ActionView (the presentation
mvc advantages:
The main objective of the MVC design pattern is separation of
concerns. It provides an isolation of the application’s
presentation layer that displays the data in the user interface,
from the way the data is actually processed. In other words, it
isolates the application’s data from how the data is actually
processed by the application’s business logic layer. The
biggest advantage of the MVC design pattern is that you have
a nice isolation of these components/layers and you can
change any one of them without the rest being affected. Here
is the list of the major advantages of this pattern.
• It provides a clean separation of concerns.
• It is easier to test code that implements this pattern.
• It promotes better code organization, extensibility, scalability
and code re-use.
• It facilitates de-coupling the application's layers.