Chapter 4: Adolescence Section 1: Physical and Sexual Development Main Idea All Adolescents experience dramatic changes in their physical size, shape, and capacities, as well as biological development related to reproduction. Adolescence The transition period between childhood and adulthood Outlooks on adolescence Time period of mixed abilities and responsibilities Other societies – Not a separate stage of life Move directly from childhood to adulthood Initiation Rite (rites of passage) Informal- 16th, 18th or 21st birthday Formal- high school/college graduation, weddings Theories of Adolescence G. Stanley Hall- Transitional Stage Period of “Storm and Stress” A marginal being, confused, troubled and highly frustrated. Theories of Adolescence Margaret Mead- Anthropological Studies In some cultures adolescence is a highly enjoyable time of life not marked by Storm and Stress Storm and Stress- byproduct of industrialized society (Culture may play a role in development) 11% experience serious difficulties 32% have sporadic problems 57% positive and healthy development during teenage years Theories of Adolescence Robert Havighurst Challenges in the form of developmental tasks (p. 95) Acquiring a gender role- Masculine or Feminine Developing appropriate relations with age-mates of both sexes Emotional dependence from parents and other adults Most face stress but tend to cope with it Influential Factors for Individual Adolescent Development Adjustments in Childhood Level of adjustment of his/her parents and peers Changes that occur during adolescence Physical, social, emotional and intellectual Physical Development Sexual Maturation (puberty) The biological event that marks the end of childhood. Hormones- trigger internal/external changes Females Start to mature physically as early as 8 Puberty between 8-10 Growth Spurt Fat tissue develops (making the girl look chubby) retain and add as they spurt Grow 2-3 ½ inches in a year Breasts and hips begin to fill out Females Reach sexual maturity at the end of growth spurt 10-17 she has her first menstrual period or menarche (beginning of womanhood) 12-18 months later her period becomes regular and she can conceive a child. Males Start to mature physically at age 9-10 Puberty between 9-16 Growth spurt- around age 12 last 2 years Fat tissue develops but is quickly lostprogress to a lean and lanky phase Age 12-13- first ejaculation or spermarche Physical Development of Males Broader Shoulders and thicker trunks More muscle tissue Larger heart and lungs than women Voice deepens Hair growth- face and later on chest Asynchrony- uneven growth of body parts Hands/feet may be too large or small compared to the rest of the body Reactions to growth Sudden body changes make all adolescents somewhat self conscious Want to be accepted by their peers Conform to how males and females their age should act, look and dress. Research on maturation and success Boys who mature early have an advantage Hero’s in sports Leaders in social activities Boys look up to them- girls have crushes Adults treat them as more mature More self-confident and independent Research on maturation and success Girls who mature early may feel embarrassed rather than proud of their height and figure at first. Dating older boys Bossy with people their own age Research on maturation and success Self-fulfilling prophecy The boy who believes he does not meet his culture’s physical ideal may think less of himself and not pursue success as diligently as the next person. His belief brings about the failure he feared Sexual Development Developing attitudes about sex and the gender role he/she will fill. Some societies keep children in the dark about sex until just before marriage Other cultures encourage preadolescents children to engage in sexual play to foster mature development Teen Sex Stats 870,000 pregnancies/year 3,000,000 cases of STDs Factors Contributing to Teenage Pregnancy Problematic Relationships Emotional Problems Problems in School Loosening of Prohibitions Peer Pressure Lack of Knowledge Fights with or rebelling against parents Feelings of emptiness Lack of educational goals Portrayal of sexual themes in the media Friends engaging in sexual activity Misunderstanding or ignorance about the facts of reproduction ABSTINENCE A choice to avoid harmful behaviors including premarital sex and the use of drugs and alcohol. Visual Representations Robert Havighurst’s research indicated that all adolescents face developmental challenges (p.95). Your assignment is to illustrate one of the tasks Havighurst identified. The illustrations can take the form of a single drawing or a cartoon.