Qualities of Effective Teachers Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bIQ43XSxU Why are effective teachers so important? What factor had the largest effect on student achievement? Mixed Ability Grouping? Class Size? Prior Achievement? The Teacher? What factor had the largest effect on student achievement? Mixed Ability Grouping? 4 Class Size? 3 Prior Achievement? 2 The Teacher? 1 Influences on Student Achievement: Explained Variance Hattie (2003): http://acer.edu.au/documents Three-year Impact of Effective vs. Less Effective Teachers Dallas Research: Teacher Quality 4th Grade Math Achievement Dallas, Texas data: 2800-3200 students per cohort Comparison of 3 “highly effective” & 3 “ineffective” teachers (Jordan, Mendro, & Weerasinghe, 1997) Dallas Research: Teacher Quality 4th Grade Reading Achievement Dallas, Texas data: 2800-3200 students per cohort Comparison of 3 “highly effective” & 3 “ineffective” teachers (Jordan, Mendro, & Weerasinghe, 1997) Residual Effect Two years of effective teachers could not remediate the achievement loss caused by one year with a poor teacher. Mendro, Jordan, Gomez, Anderson, & Bembry (1998) Time in the School Year Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning 75th Percentile Teacher 25th Percentile Teacher 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Years Needed Leigh, Economics of Education Review (2010) Time in the School Year Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning 90th Percentile Teacher 10th Percentile Teacher 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Years Needed Leigh, Economics of Education Review (2010) What is an effective teacher? Qualities of Effective Teachers EFFECTIVE TEACHERS Job Responsibilities and Background Practices Prerequisites The Person Organizing Implementing for Instruction Instruction Classroom Management & Instruction Monitoring Student Progress & Potential Stronge, Qualities of Effective Teachers, ASCD (2007). Diagram is used with the permission of Linda Hutchinson, Doctoral Student, The College of William and Mary Prerequisites of Effective Teachers Which teacher factor is a strong predictor of student achievement gains? • Teacher experience X X • Teacher level of education • Type of teacher certification X The Teacher as a Person • Caring • Fairness & Respect • Attitude • Reflective Practice The Bottom Line “… nothing, absolutely nothing, has happened in education until it has happened to a student.” Joe Carroll (1994) Video http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1lcZbRY_bYs Teacher Performance Evaluation System Effectiveness is the goal. Evaluation is merely the means. Teacher Performance Evaluation System • What is the basis of teachers’ evaluation? • How will teacher performance be documented? • How will teacher performance be rated? Question 1 What is the basis of teachers’ evaluation? Main Components Performance Standard Standard 2: Instructional Planning The teacher effectively plans using the approved curriculum, instructional strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students. Performance Indicators Sample Performance Indicators Examples may include, but are not limited to: The teacher: 2.1 Align lesson objectives to approved curriculum using student learning data to guide planning. 2.2 Plans accordingly for pacing, sequencing content coverage, transitions, and application of knowledge. 2.3 Plans for differentiated instruction. Performance 2.4 Develops appropriate long- and short-range plans and is able to adapt plans when needed. Appraisal 2.5 Uses resources, including technology, to effectively communicate with stakeholders regarding the Rubric curriculum shared in their classroom. . Distinguished Effective In addition to meeting the requirements for Effective… Effective is the expected level of performance. The teacher actively seeks and uses alternative data and resources, and regularly differentiates plans and modifies instruction to meet the needs of all students. The teacher effectively plans using the approved curriculum, instructional strategies, resources and data to meet the needs of all students. Developing Needs Improvement The teacher inconsistently uses the curriculum, effective strategies, resources, or data in planning to meet the needs of all students. Unacceptable The teacher does not plan, or plans without adequately using the curriculum, or without using effective strategies, resources, or data to meet the needs of all students. Teacher Performance Standards 1. Professional Knowledge 2. Instructional Planning 3. Instructional Delivery 4. Assessment For and Of Learning 5. Learning Environment 6. Professionalism Performance Standard 1 Professional Knowledge The teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and diverse needs of students by providing meaningful learning experiences. Performance Standard 2 Instructional Planning The teacher effectively plans using the approved curriculum, instructional strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students. Performance Standard 3 Instructional Delivery The teacher effectively engages students in learning by using a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs. Performance Standard 4 Assessment For and Of Learning The teacher systematically gathers, analyzes, and uses relevant data to measure student progress, guide instructional content and delivery methods, and provide timely feedback to students, parents, and stakeholders. Performance Standard 5 Learning Environment The teacher uses resources, routines, and procedures to provide a respectful, safe, positive, student-centered environment that is conducive to student engagement and learning. Performance Standard 6 Professionalism The teacher demonstrates behavior consistent with legal, ethical, and professional standards, contributes to the profession, and engages in professional growth that results in improved student learning. Question 2 How will teacher performance be documented? Multiple Data Sources for Teachers Observations • • • • Documentation Log • Includes both specific required artifacts and teacher-selected artifacts • Artifacts provide evidence of meeting selected performance standards • Provides teacher with opportunity to demonstrate quality work Student Surveys • • • • Goal Setting • Appropriate measures of academic progress are determined • Teachers set goals for improving student progress based on the results of performance measures • Quality of the objectives and their attainment provide an important data source for evaluation Teachers formally observed at least two times per year Additional formal observations at evaluator’s discretion Observations last at least 45 minutes, include a post-conference Informal observations at evaluator’s discretion Teachers survey their students twice a year Four survey instruments provided Teachers enter summary of the results in their Documentation Log Surveys provide additional data to teachers than can influence teaching strategies Data Collection Responsibilities Data Collection Procedure Form(s) Evaluator Teacher Formal Observations Formal Classroom Observation Form Informal Observations Informal Classroom Observation Form Student Surveys Student Survey Forms (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Student Survey Growth Plan Student Survey Analysis Documentation Logs Documentation Log Cover Sheet Goal Setting Goal Setting for Student Progress Form Question 3 How will teacher performance be rated? Evaluations Interim Evaluation • All New to District teachers • Used to document evidence of meeting standards • Does NOT include rating of performance Summative Evaluation • • • • Comes at end of evaluation cycle Four point rating scale Performance rubric for every standard Rating based on “preponderance of evidence” Terms used in Rating Scale Category Description Definition Distinguished The teacher maintains performance, accomplishments, and behaviors that consistently surpass the established standard. • Sustains high performance over period of time • Behaviors have strong positive impact on learners and school climate • May serve as role model to others Effective The teacher meets the standard in a manner that is consistent with the school’s mission and goals. • Meets the requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteria • Behaviors have positive impact on learners and school climate • Willing to learn and apply new skills Developing/ Needs Improvement The teacher is inconsistent in meeting standards and/or in working toward the school’s missions and goals. • Requires support in meeting the standards • Results in less than quality work performance • Leads to areas for teacher improvement being jointly identified and planned between teacher and evaluator Ineffective The teacher consistently performs below the established standards or in a manner that is inconsistent with the school’s missions and goals. • Does not meet requirements contained in job description as expressed in evaluation criteria • Results in minimal student learning • May contribute to recommendation for teacher not being considered for continued employment Evaluation Process Timeline Activity for Professional Improvement During 1st Month • All teachers establish student progress goal By October 15th • All teachers survey students first time By end of 1st grading period • First observation of probationary teachers By December 15th • Probationary teachers survey students second time By January 15th • Second observation of probationary teachers • First observation of continuing contract teachers Mid-Year • Mid-year review of student progress goal By February 1st • Interim performance review of probationary teachers By February 15th • Continuing contract teachers survey students second time By May 1st By Last Week of School • Second observation of continuing contract teachers • Teachers submit end-of-year review of student progress goal • Review Documentation Log • Summative Evaluation Focus on Effectiveness Outstanding Teachers & Leaders = Student Results Video http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=sQVgniNcO_g Teacher Responsibilities • Having knowledge of the content, students, and curriculum • Planning instruction that meets student needs and curricular requirements • Offering appropriate and engaging instruction • Assessing student work • Providing a safe and secure learning environment • Demonstrating professionalism and communicating effectively Student Learning Limitations of Observation • Observe 2 to 4 classes per year (.4% of performance) • Classroom responsibilities only • Subject to evaluator bias • Focus on process of teaching versus outcomes • Inspector model of evaluation Multiple Data Sources Teacher Evaluation Observation Intended to provide information on a wide variety of contributions made by teachers in the classroom or to the school community as a whole. May take a variety of forms • Formal observation • Informal observation • Walk-through observation May occur in a variety of settings • Classroom environment • Non-classroom environment Formal Observations • Directly focused on teacher performance standards May not see all standards in one observation May include review of teacher artifacts or student data • Announced or unannounced; at least 45 minutes in duration • Teachers observed at least twice per year New to District teachers observed by end of 1st grading period and then by January 15 Continuing contract teacher observed by January 15 and then by May 1 • Additional observations at evaluator’s discretion • At least one pre-observation conference for teachers in first year in district • Evaluator provides feedback during post-observation conference, typically within five working days Informal Observations • Provide more frequent information on wide variety of teacher contributions • Classroom and non-classroom settings • Less structured than formal observations • No specified duration • Occur throughout the year • Evaluator completes observation form; provides copy to teacher Documentation Log • Provides evidence of performance related to specific standards – teacher’s voice in evaluation • Complements classroom observation • Includes both specific required artifacts and teacher-selected artifacts • Emphasis is on quality, not quantity • Should include analysis and reflection • More concise than portfolios; district needs to relay expectations • Reviewed by evaluator by mid-year for New to District teachers; by May 1 for all teachers • Electronic or paper files Student Surveys • Provide students’ perceptions of how teacher is performing -direct knowledge of classroom practices • All teachers survey students prior to October 15th New to District teachers survey same cohort by December 15th Continuing contract teachers survey same cohort by February 15th • Age considerations for survey • Surveys are anonymous • Actual responses seen only by individual teacher • Teachers fill out Student Survey Growth Plan and Student Survey Analysis and include in documentation log • Helps teachers reflect on practice; set goals for continuous improvement (formative evaluation) Sample Student Survey Example: I like to eat pizza. 1. My teacher listens to me. 2. My teacher gives me help when I need it. Abbreviated for training purposes Sample Student Survey Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 1. My teacher gives clear instructions. 1 2 3 4 5 2. My teacher shows respect to all students. 1 2 3 4 5 3. My teacher handles classroom disruptions well. 1 2 3 4 5 4. My teacher helps me to be organized. 1 2 3 4 5 Example: I like listening to music. Abbreviated for training purposes Student Surveys: Benefits & Challenges Benefits Challenges • Teachers receive feedback from the receivers of their services • Teachers can use as a formative evaluation to improve practice • Concern that results are based on popularity • Surveys might not ask the right questions • Surveys might not ask the right students What Does the Research Say? • Ample evidence to support use of student surveys in teacher evaluation • Research consistently indicates that students from K-12 can provide reliable information related to teacher effectiveness • Student ratings of teachers are a significant predictor of student achievement--better than parent or administrator ratings Faucette, Ball, & Ostrander, 1995; Stronge & Ostrander, 2006; Wilkerson, Mannatt, Rogers, & Maughan, 2000 Recommendations for Interpreting Survey Results Review results and ask yourself the following questions: • Is the information your students provided about you accurate? • If you agree that the information is accurate, are you satisfied with the students’ perceptions about you? • If you believe the information is inaccurate, do you know why your students have these perceptions? • Do you need to make changes to improve your students’ perceptions? • If you think changes are justified, consider using the student data to set a personal or instructional goal for improvement. Performance Portrait Observations Documentation Log Surveys Goal Setting for Student Achievement Advantages to Volunteering • Have the ability to give feedback to the Admin Team – Pilot Year. • Ability to assist other staff members next year, therefore increasing opportunities for Professionalism Documentation • This program, volunteer or not, will assist everyone on the PI-34 License Renewal. How to Volunteer to Pilot in 2013 • If you are interested, let your Building Principal know by Wednesday, January 13. • If we get more than 50% of that staff in any one building, we will ask for volunteers to wait until the following year. • If we do not get at least 50%, Building Principals will choose staff to be evaluated. • Reason for 50% = You will be formally observed once every two years once you reach “Continuing Educator” status. • Staff with 3 years or less will be evaluated each year. Who will be evaluated this year? • All Administrators • All staff “New to the District” • All staff in their third year or less in the district. • All staff on a Plan of Improvement. • Staff that the Building Principal select to be evaluated. Next Steps • For those that Volunteer or “Will be Evaluated,” we will meet as a group on January 30 (next Extended PLC day). • We will go through how the My Learning Plan Software works, how to utilize the forms available, and the general procedures to be followed. Questions?