The Role of Federal, State and Local Policymakers in Advancing School Discipline Reform NASBE Annual Conference The Ritz-Carlton Pentagon City, Arlington, VA Sunday, July 28, 2013 Advancing School Discipline Policy: From Research to Policy David Osher, Ph.D. American Institutes for Research NASBE Annual Conference The Ritz-Carlton Pentagon City, Arlington, VA Sunday, July 28, 2013 Takeaways • School and classroom climate can affect conditions for learning and through that attendance and learning • Discipline practices can either enhance or harm conditions of learning. • We know enough about what to do and what to avoid in discipline policies and practices to improve conditions for learning Thought Experiment: Is the Problem the Fish, The Water, or Both? School Climate • Product of: • Intentional and unintentional behaviors of all members of the school community – individually and collectively • Immediate and historical • E.g., impact of school history and rituals • Explicit and implicit • Norms • What is taken for granted • Affects and is affected by how people behave Conditions for Learning • Aspects of climate that are closest to attendance, learning, achievement, graduation • Emotional and Physical Safety • E.g. Chicago and Virginia research • Connection, Respect, and Support • NELS Data • Engagement & Challenge • Peer and Adult Social and Emotional Competence Affect of Discipline on Climate & Conditions for Learning • Safety • Fear: "They don’t shout at me here” • Alienation: perception of profiling and favoritism • Students feel less safe in schools with high numbers of suspension • Connection • Exclusionary vs. inclusionary discipline • Relationship based discipline Affect of Discipline on Climate & Conditions for Learning • Challenge & Engagement • A focus on external discipline breaks the “vector” of learning • Reduced instructional time and opportunities to learn • > Falling further behind in class • -> More problems • Reduced Motivation • Peer & Adult Social & Emotional Competency • Modeling of power and lack of emotional control • Focus on compliance (when observed) vs. Self-Discipline What We Can Do • Collect climate data and use for planning and monitoring • E.g., Cleveland • See: National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments • High behavioral and academic expectations • High levels of support for students and teachers to meet these expectations • Employ a three-tiered approach that aligns academic and social and emotional support Work at Three Levels Provide Individualized Intensive Supports Provide coordinated, intensive, sustained, culturally competent, individualized, child- and family- driven and focused services and supports that address needs while building assets. Intervene Early & Provide Focused Youth Development Activities Implement strategies and provide supports that address risk factors and build protective factors for students at risk for severe academic or behavioral difficulties. Build a Schoolwide Foundation Universal prevention and youth development approaches, caring school climate, positive and proactive approach to discipline, personalized instruction, cultural competence, and strong family involvement. What To Do: Focus on Prevention What We Can Do • Universal • Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) • E.g., IL and KA SEL Standards • Effects on Social Competence, Behavior, & Achievement • Positive Behavioral Supports and Interventions (PBIS) • E.g., Maryland and L.A. • E.g., Garfield High School • Community Building Activities such as Class Meetings • Professional Development for Adults What We Can Do • Early Intervention • • • • • Effective use of Warning Signs Functional Behavioral Assessment Planning Centers Restorative Circles Student Support Teams • Intensive Intervention • • • • Effective mental health services Special Education Wraparound Supports Restorative Justice What Does Not Work What Does Not Work • Reaction rather than Prevention • Lectures • Punishment • E.g., Research on: • Vandalism • Scared Straight • Boot Camps Resources • Interagency Working Group on Youth--Findyouthinfo.gov • National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments safesupportiveschools.ed.gov • The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At Risk ( NDTAC ) - http://www.neglecteddelinquent.org • National Clearing House on Safe and Supportive School Discipline (coming soon) Snapshot of Maryland Education Local School Systems Schools Teachers 24 1452 59,330 Students 859,638 41.8% 35.1% 12.9% 6.0% White African American Hispanic Asian Special Education12.0% FARMs Ltd. English Proficient 44.0% 7.0% Preparing World-Class Students Maryland State Board of Education Links to Key Documents/Work in Progress • Maryland Board Documents on Student Discipline and Long Term Suspensions www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/stateboard/Student+Discipline+and+Long+Term+Suspensions • School Discipline and Academic Success: Related Parts of Maryland’s Education Reform www.marylandpublicschools.org/NR/rdonlyres/42ED8EDA-AF34-4058-B27503189163882D/32853/SchoolDisciplineandAcademicSuccessReportFinalJuly2.pdf • School Discipline Regulations Workgroup www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/studentschoolsvcs/student_services_alt/sdrw • Best Practices Workgroup www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/studentschoolsvcs/student_services_alt/sdw/?WBCMODE=PresentationUn published • Code of Conduct Workgroup www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/studentschoolsvcs/student_services_alt/student_discipline Anne Arundel County Public Schools Anne Arundel County Public Schools Federal Guidelines and State Policy State and Local Policy • How can State Boards of Education address assist in the Supportive School Discipline Initiative which addresses the “school to prison pipeline” and the disciplinary policies and practices that can push students out of school and into the criminal justice system? State and Local Policy • Know your State data • Identify the school districts in your state that show significant disparities in the data and provide support to identified districts • Know the role of State Education Attorneys regarding compliance issues State and Local Policy Know your State data – available at http://OCRdata.ed.gov – Data from the Office of Civil Rights Look at data from your own Department Look at data from other state agencies The Department of Public Safety The Department of Corrections The Board of Parole The Department of Public Health Example: The Iowa Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning offers statistics on juveniles in relation to criminal activities. Better information = better policies State and Local Policy • Identify the school districts in your state that show significant disparities in the data. • Use district specific data to guide your support. • Suspensions, expulsions, corporal punishment, arrests and disciplinary alternative schools • Information on school climate, such as truancy, stability, and attendance rates, and parent/student/teacher surveys • Disaggregated by race, gender, special education and socioeconomic status, and English proficiency State and Local Policy Review disciplinary policies (Use of Code of Conduct vs. Disciplinary) Provide model good discipline practices to foster safe and productive learning environments in every classroom. Offer federal best practices (Oakland Unified SD & Meridian) Provide positive behavioral interventions and supports Communicate with the districts and facilitate the implementation of these practices. When it comes to facilitation – Look at cultural competence and achievement gap issues. Provide proper training to staff Provide support and research on the relationship of school discipline and academic achievement – research shows punitive discipline harms academic achievement. State and Local Policy Know the role of state education attorneys and how they can be instrumental in helping state boards support districts to ensure they meet federal guidelines as it pertains to school discipline. Responsible for responding to OCR regarding a complaint of non-compliance for failure of the State to monitor a local districts actions The State oversees compliance with federal laws and regulations Can help implement a plan of action for compliance for the districts. State boards may have different oversight abilities – check with your State Education Attorney regarding your authority. State and Local Policy Nicole M. Proesch, Legal Counsel, Office of the Director, Iowa Department of Education Phone: (515) 281-8661 Email: Nicole.Proesch@Iowa.gov Questions?