Progressive Era : Reform Leaders US.5 (B) Evaluate the impact of muckrakers and reform leaders such as Upton Sinclair, Susan B. Anthony, Ida B. Wells, and W.E.B. DuBois on American society US.26 (D) Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women such as Frances Willard, Jane Addams, .... Progressive Era : Reform Leaders Reform Leader = someone who breaks down social, economic, or political issues with the hopes to initiate and institute changes for the better. Progressive Era : Reform Leaders Muckraker = journalist who wrote during the progressive era for popular magazines and continued the tradition of investigative reporting. Term refers for a watchdog function. Progressive Reform Leader Upton Sinclair = American author who acquired fame for his 1906 muckraking novel The Jungle. It exposed condition in the U.S .meat packing industry, causing a public uproar that got the Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection act passed into law. Upton Sinclair Progressive Era : Reform Leaders The Jungle = a book written by Upton Sinclair about the pertaining to the corruption of the American meatpacking industry during the early-20th century. * poor immigrants * unpleasant living and working conditions * hopelessness among the working class * corruption on the part of those in power Progressive Era : Reform Leaders Excerpt from : The Jungle: Upton Sinclair “There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.” Progressive Reform Leader - Jacob Riis Jacob Riis, a Danish-American muckraker journalist and slum and school reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. He came to America in 1870 and wrote for the New York Evening Sun newspaper. As a pioneer investigative journalist, he went undercover working at a meat packing factory. He was one of the first Americans to use flashlight powder, allowing his documentation of New York slums to penetrate the dark of night. He became well known as a social reformer. His book How the Other Half Lives, pioneering photojournalism, and friendship with Theodore Roosevelt (then New York Police Board of Commissioners head) led to positive changes for New York tenement dwellers. Jacob Riis worked to improve the lives of the urban poor. A native of Denmark, Riis had boarded a steamship bound for American in 1870 at the age of 21 and settled in New York City. There he personally experienced the dreadful conditions in which many new American immigrants lived. Progressive Reform Leader - Susan B. Anthony Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year. Progressive Reform Leader - Jane Jane Addams was born to a wealthy family in Cedarville, Illinois. Her father, a state senator, taught her a sense of tolerance, philanthropy, and a strong work ethic. He encouraged her to pursue higher education, though not at the expense of losing her femininity and the prospect of marriage and motherhood. She attended college in Europe and the United States, and wanted to go on for a degree in medicine, but her parents, fearing for her marriage prospects, felt she was already sufficiently educated. While in Great Britain, Addams toured Toynebee Hall, a settlement house in London’s East End. In 1889 she and her friend, Ellen Gates Starr co-founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first settlement houses in the United States. At its height, Hull House was visited each week by around two thousand people. Its facilities included a night school for adults, kindergarten classes, clubs for older children, a public kitchen, an art gallery, a coffeehouse, a gymnasium, a girls club, a swimming pool, a book bindery, a music school, a drama group, a library, and labor-related divisions. Addams Progressive Reform Leader - Frances Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard (September 28, 1839 – February 17, 1898) was an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution. Willard became the national president of Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in 1879, and remained president for 19 years. She developed the slogan "Do everything" for the women of the WCTU to incite lobbying, petitioning, preaching, publication, and education. Her vision progressed to include federal aid to education, free school lunches, unions for workers, the eight-hour work day, work relief for the poor, municipal sanitation and boards of health, national transportation, strong anti-rape laws, and protections against child abuse. Willard Progressive Era : Reform Leader Ida B. Wells = an African American, newspaper editor owned a newspaper with her husband. An early leader of the civil rights movement who documented lynching in the U.S. Lynching was a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites. She was active in the women’s rights and the women’s suffrage movement. Progressive Era : Third Political Parties, Bull Moose Party, Populist Party, Progressive Party Terms to know: Populist = a member of a political party that claimed to represent the common people, primarily agrarian (farm) interest). Labor onmia vincit means "Work (Labor) conquers (vincit) everything (omnia)." Progressive = a member of a political party that is seen as moving forward with new ideas that are not sticking to the same thing over and over again. They want to make progress. Progressive Era : Third Political Parties, Bull Moose Party, Populist Party, Progressive Party • Populist Party = Populist Party, which worked to improve conditions for farmers and laborers. The Populist Party supported its own third-party candidates who were usually backed by the Farmer’s Alliance, the National Grange, as well as the nation’s working class. William Jennings Bryant = ran for president 3 times and lost. Gave famous “Cross of Gold Speech. Farmers were angry with the high cost of loans, production costs, storage and transportation fees. Progressive Era : Third Political Parties, Bull Moose Party, Populist Party, Progressive Party • Progressive Party = the Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1912. It was formed by Theodore Roosevelt. The party is colloquially also known as the “Bull Moose Party” after Roosevelt's boast that he was "as strong as a bull moose".